North Caucasus Weekly: New Ingush Rights Council Flooded With Complaints

New Ingush Rights Council Flooded with Complaints


 

December 18, 2008 06:53 PM Age: 3 days

Category: North Caucasus Weekly


 


Interfax reported on December 12 that the new Human Rights Council set up by Ingush President Yunus-Bek Yevkurov had received complaints from over 150 people during its first few days of operation. The council’s chairman, Azamat Nalgiyev, told the news agency that most of the petitions were about abductions and killings in the republic, while others were from citizens seeking protection from abuses by state officials and still others were from people illegally fired from various agencies and organizations. He said some of the problems had been quickly solved.

Meanwhile, Ingushetia’s insurgents continued their campaign of violence aimed at various targets across the republic. On December 14, bomb disposal experts defused a powerful improvised explosive device discovered on a road on the outskirts of Nazran and another found near a shop in the city of Malgobek, Interfax reported. The opposition Ingushetia.org website reported that a shop that sells alcohol in Malgobek was hit by an explosion on December 14 that seriously damaged the shop but caused no casualties.

Unidentified gunmen fired on a car carrying policeman in the village of Ordzhonikidzevskaya in Ingushetia’s Sunzha district on December 13. Interfax reported that two policemen were wounded and hospitalized. Earlier that day, the news agency reported that an unidentified gunman, apparently using a sniper rifle, had wounded a policeman near the Sunzha district police building in the village of Troitskaya, while in a separate incident, unidentified attackers fired at a police station on the outskirts of Nazran. No one was hurt in the second incident, and the attackers escaped. Also on December 13, a serviceman with an Ingush Interior Ministry’s special forces unit, Police Warrant Officer Dzhabrail Tsechoyev, was shot and serious wounded on the Caucasus federal highway in Nazran, RIA Novosti reported. That same day, a resident of the village of Dolakovo was shot dead by unknown attackers in his car in the center of Nazran.

On December 12, a car in which Akhmed Khashagulgov, the head of the Investigative Committee department in Malgobek, was blown up, wounding Khashagulgov. Kavkazky Uzel reported that on the same day, a large explosion went off near the main market in the city of Karabulak.

On December 11, unknown gunmen fired on policemen in the village of Troitskaya, but no one was hurt in the attack, RIA Novosti reported.

The press service of the investigations department of the Investigative Committee for Ingushetia reported on December 27 that the number of attacks on law-enforcement personnel and military servicemen in the republic increased more than two times since the beginning of 2008 compared with the analogous period in 2007. The department reported that there were 167 such attacks during the first eleven months of 2008—a 125 percent increase over the first eleven months of last year.  It also said that there have been 68 murders in Ingushetia since the start of the year— 12 more than during the same period in 2007, constituting a 31.4 percent increase.

 

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KC: Omra Of Amir Abu-Usman: To establish An Islamic State – The Caucasus Emirat

From: MSN NicknameEagle_wng  (Original Message)    Sent: 12/10/2007 2:11 PM
Omra of Amir Abu-Usman: ‘To establish an Islamic State – The Caucasus Emirate’
Publication time: 10 December 2007, 19:28
The press service of the head of the Caucasus Emirate Amir Abu-Usman (Dokka Umarov) handed over to Kavkaz Center news agency the first governmental legal acts which have been issued by the leader of the Islamic State. According to the documents signed by the Amir Abu-Usman on esablishment of the Islamic State, its official name – Caucasus Emirate – has been been approved and the Shariah rule has been imposed throughout it’s territory.

OMRA (Decree) №1

“On establishment of the Caucasus Emirate”

In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate!

Realizing the responsibility before the Creator and the Lord of the Worlds

Fulfilling Allah’s prescriptions (s.w.), “And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves” (Holy Qur’an, 3/103)

In order to restore Shariah legitimacy of the State before the Almighty Allah (s.w.), to protect life, liberty, honor, dignity of the Muslims and to return for Caucasus a status Dar-us-salam (the territories of peace)

I decree:

1. To establish an Islamic State – The Caucasus Emirate.

2. I reserve the control over implementation of this Omra.

3. The Omra comes into force since the moment of signing.

Amir of Cacasus Emirate,
Abu-Usman (Dokka Umarov)

 

Ramadan 29, 1428

OMRA №2

“On the imposition of the Shariah Rule on the territories of the Caucasus Emirate”

In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate!

Realizing the responsibility before the Creator and the Lord of the Worlds

I approve La ilaha illallah (There is no god only Allah)

Based on the prescriptions of Almighty Allah (s.w.), “If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers” (Holy Qur’an, 5/44)

I decree:

1. To impose Shariah governance on whole territory of the Caucasus Emirate.

2. Adjust in accordance with requirements of the Shariah all governmental bodies of the Caucasus Emirate as well as their activities.

3. I reserve the control over implementation of this Omra.

4. The Omra comes into force since the moment of signing.

Amir of Cacasus Emirate,
Abu-Usman (Dokka Umarov)

 
Ramadan 29, 1428

Kavkaz Center

http://www.kavkazcenter.com/eng/content/2007/12/10/9162.shtml

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Sochi: Beyond The Olympic Hype

From: psychoteddybear24

22/05/2008 | Moscow News №20 2008
Sochi: Beyond the Olympic Hype

The first thing that naturally comes to mind when speaking about Sochi is the 2014 Winter Olympics. For many Russian citizens, Sochi’s successful Olympic bid sounded funny, if not absurd, because ski and snow is not the first thing associated with this southern paradise: Sochi is generally considered a place to vacation under the high, hot summer sun.

Sochi has always been a summer resort. Russian vacationers flocked to Sochi and began investing in the city in the 1950s, due in part to the fact that Stalin had one of his dachas in the area. It quickly became the primary and most prosperous Russian resort. As the self-proclaimed longest city in Europe (at 145 kilometers) the “Greater Sochi” area consists of a number of small towns and villages criss-crossed by valleys and rivers into four large administrative districts named central Sochi, Lazarevsky, Khostinsky and Adlersky. The last area hosts the region’s airport and is adjacent to the Russian border with Abkhazia.

Just looking at a city map, with its several straight boulevards and twisted and bending streets, gives you a first impression of what Sochi is like – a purely southern and mountainous city, which is also a melting pot of Russian and Caucasian cultures.

The city welcomes you with the very modest and weather-beaten Adler airport. Yes, there is a new terminal, but apparently International Olympic Committee delegation and Russia’s top bananas are the only ones privileged to it so far.

The Adler district bears all the traits of a separate southern city, and presents better and cheaper lodging options. They include seaside blocks packed with small private hotels, as well as large Soviet-style sanatoriums, all within a 15-minute drive from Sochi’s center via a modern highway that meanders over valleys and through huge tunnels.

Driving all the way to central Sochi with a local driver at the wheel can be an extreme experience for the uninitiated, especially if you take an old Gazelle marshrutka that will tremble, rattle and whirl you along. Moreover, it will not even brake at bus stops and shout. But the pleasant thing is that it will stop anywhere you like if you manage to get in.

Sochi has always been an all-Soviet resort. Its importance and popularity only increased after the Soviet Union collapsed, and the other traditional resort on the Crimea peninsula became part of a separate country. Almost no famous cultural landmarks, museums and monuments can be found in Sochi except for a Stalinist rail station and port. The very center of the city is the crossroads of the highway’s Kurortny Prospect and Gorkogo Ulitsa with St. Michael’s granite column from one side and vast open book of the Moskva Hotel from the other.

This is the main square of the city, where decent restaurants, shops and a marketplace are located. If you head a little farther along Kurortny Prospect and cross the Sochi River you stumble upon Riviera Park, a typical amusement park. Gorkogo Ulitsa, beginning at the square, leads uphill to the railway station and narrow and cozy side streets among houses scattered around the hills.

It is impossible to imagine Sochi without the sea. Take a stroll along central Sochi’s seaside lined with caf?s, restaurants, clubs and shops selling all kinds of Sochi related kitsch. Go up near Zhemchuzhina (Pearl) Hotel and the so-called Winter Theater with countless columns under a massive portico.

Not far from there is Sochi’s famous Arboretum, a large botanical garden with tropical trees from many countries. One unique feature is its “Mayors Alley” – a line of palm-trees planted by the mayors of different cities of the world. The garden lies on a smooth long slope and it is possible to take a cable car to get to the top and take a walk down enjoying the city and view of the Black Sea.

Among one of the most famous tourist must-sees of Sochi is the 663- meter Greater Akhun mountain, which is topped with a 30 meter limestone tower that is accessible by bus. The tower presents a breathtaking view of the whole Sochi area, and even Abkhazia’s Gagra and Pitsunda resorts looming near the horizon along with the snow crowned Caucasian peaks.

Kudepsta, another seashore resort is notable for the Vorontsov Caves that stretch for some four kilometers away from the shore. The largest cavern has a length of twenty meters. Another natural landmark to have a walk in is a grove of yews and boxwood, a part Caucasian Biosphere Reserve situated not far from Khosta. A very pleasant grove with a map of routes and paved paths with benches standing in the most picturesque spots offers tourists a great place to relax and muse.

The 2014 Olympic Games in Sochi are generally to take place not in central Sochi, but in the so called Krasnya Polyana (Red Glade), originally an unremarkable ski resort which in recent decades developed into a big and fashionable winter sports resort (especially after Vladimir Putin spent his vacations skiing there).

The place is located about 40 km from the sea coast and lies in a valley between mountain peaks. Usually popular in winter, it is also worth visiting in summer to enjoy mountains view, fresh air and take a chairlift up to the Aibga crest (at 2,500 meters).

Today’s Sochi offers quite a lot of opportunities for peaceful rest between the sea and mountains, all in harmony with nature.

However, Olympics hysteria was felt a long time ago, with prices soaring, construction booming, traffic growing worse. Things only promise to get more hectic – and more modern – as 2014 draws near.

It is strongly recommended not to visit Sochi during the high seasons of winter and summer, unless you are completely obsessed with skiing or bathing in the sea. At other times of the year, Sochi still has lots for you to see and do. ■

By Alexander Usoltsev

Special to The Moscow News

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RFE/RL: Russia: Imperial Anniversary Challenged In North Caucasus

From: MSN NicknameEagle_wng  (Original Message)    Sent: 9/27/2007 10:05 PM
Thursday, September 27, 2007

Russia: Imperial Anniversary Challenged In North Caucasus

By Liz Fuller

September 27, 2007 (RFE/RL) — As Russia celebrates the 450th anniversary of the “voluntary incorporation” of three of its present-day North Caucasus republics into the Russian Empire, historians are contesting the notion that a 1557 alliance between Muscovy and Karbarda constituted imperial accession.

The first stage of celebrations to mark the anniversary of the political pact took place in Nalchik, capital of the present-day Kabardino-Balkaria Republic (KBR), from September 7-9.
 
Similar celebrations were scheduled in Adygeya on September 24-27, in Karachayevo-Cherkessia on September 28-29, and in Moscow on October 5-7. Although the present Russian leadership’s interpretation of the 1557 alliance as the voluntary submission by local princes to Russian hegemony has sparked some bitterness and criticism among Adygs, Cherkess, and Kabardians alike, the commemoration in Kabardino-Balkaria passed without major incident.
Friendship And Brotherhood?
 
Historically, the ethnonym Adyg referred both to the Adygs and to the related northwest Caucasian peoples. They subsequently split into the Kabardians in the east, and the Adygs and Cherkess (Circassians) in the west, a division that is reflected in the present-day official designation of their respective republics.

The size and distribution of the three related ethnic groups is, moreover, uneven. While the Kabardians account for more than 55 percent of their republic’s 900,000 population, and the Adygs account for some 25 percent of the total 447,000 population of the Republic of Adygeya, the Cherkess in Karachayevo-Cherkessia constitute only a small minority (10-11 percent of a total population of some 429,000).
 
In September 2006, Russian President Vladimir Putin issued a series of presidential edicts “on marking the 450th anniversary of the voluntary incorporation” into the Russian Empire of the present-day Adygeya, Karachayevo-Cherkessia, and Kabardino-Balkaria. The formulation “voluntary incorporation” led some Adygs, Cherkess, and Kabardians to protest that it constituted a distortion of historical fact in the name of what many critics perceived as Great Russian chauvinism.
 
Such skewing of history to conform to and substantiate political dogma, specifically the myth of friendship and brotherhood among the various peoples of the USSR, was a prominent component of Soviet communist ideology. For example, the 200th anniversary of the Treaty of Georgiyevsk, under which Erekle II, king of eastern Georgia, secured a pledge of Russian protection against Persia, was widely celebrated in 1983 as a progressive move that paved the path to eternal friendship between the Russian and Georgian peoples.
 
Local critics of Moscow’s interpretation of the 1557 pact also noted that in 1864, Tsarist Russia launched a major war to subjugate the North Caucasus in which hundreds of thousands of Adygs, Cherkess, and Kabardians were either killed or driven into exile in Turkey and other Near Eastern countries, where they still have sizeable diasporas. The Adygeya chapter of the Cherkess Congress has appealed unsuccessfully, first to the Russian State Duma and then to President Putin, to designate those mass killings as genocide.
 
Historical Objections

In November 2006, the public organization Cherkess Congress of the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic criticized the planned anniversary celebrations as an attempt to rewrite history and whitewash what the organization’s members termed the genocide of the Cherkess people, AP reported on November 17. Meeting six months later, in May 2007, again in Nalchik, KBR Cherkess Congress members pledged to launch protests if the planned celebrations took place as planned in September, according to caucasustimes.com on May 22.
 
KBR Cherkess Congress leader Ruslan Keshayev explained the Cherkess’ collective objections in an extensive interview with the website kavkaz-uzel.ru on May 24. Keshayev argued that the marriage of Tsar Ivan the Terrible to Guashana, the daughter of Kabardian Prince Temryuk Iradov, cemented a “military-political alliance” between two equal princedoms under which Muscovy undertook to protect Kabarda in the event of an attack either by the Ottoman Turks or the Khanate of Crimea, not the “incorporation” of Kabarda into the Russian Empire.

He drew the comparison between the alliance against Nazi Germany during World War II between the United States and the USSR, pointing out how risible it would be to construe that as the incorporation of the former into the latter state. Keshayev also pointed out that imperial Russian historians dated the incorporation of Kabarda into the Russian Empire to 1774 and that of western Cherkessia to 1829, and that the “myth” of the incorporation of Cherkessia into the Russian Empire in the mid-16th century was an invention of Soviet historiography.
 
Adyg intellectuals, meanwhile, appealed to the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Russian History to give an assessment of the nature of the 1557 pact. The institute duly issued such an assessment, from which kavkaz-uzel.ru quoted key extracts on September 2, but the evaluation has not been widely publicized, at least in Adygeya, the website reported on September 12.
 
Specifically, the Institute of Russian History noted that in the mid-16th century Tsar Ivan IV “established friendly relations with several Adyg rulers” who subsequently sent envoys to Moscow requesting assistance against the khans of Crimea in return for acknowledging Russian overlordship [poddanstvo]. The institute ruled that it would be premature to designate that pact as the “annexation” by Muscovy of the North Caucasus, given that the borders of Muscovy at that time were so far to the north. Institute staff further said they are “inclined to link the final incorporation of the Northeast Caucasus into the Russian Empire with the end of the Caucasian War of the first half of the 19th century.”

They concluded that “strictly speaking, no annexation or ‘voluntary incorporation’ of the Adygs into the Russian Empire took place in the mid-16th century. In our view, the formulation ‘military-political alliance’ that began appearing in regional studies of the Caucasus in recent years reflects far more accurately the character of Adyg-Russian relations up until the end of the 18th century, although that formulation is conditional [uslovna] and requires clarification…. Thus we believe that what happened 450 years ago was not the annexation of Adygeya by Russia but the establishment of allied relations between them.”
 
Grounds For Parade

Undeterred by the reservations publicly expressed by some of their citizens, the leaders of the three republics set about organizing the appropriate combination of cultural and public-political events. Kabardino-Balkaria President Arsen Kanokov reportedly opted for a youth parade, concerts of classical and pop music, displays of fireworks, and a major exhibition intended to attract investment from other regions of Russia. There were also horse races, in which a colt named Djasil belonging to pro-Moscow Chechen Republic head Ramzan Kadyrov won the 450th Anniversary Cup, according to gazeta.ru on September 9. Also featured was the formal unveiling of a monument to Kanokov’s predecessor Valery Kokov, who died of cancer in the fall of 2005 weeks after leaving office, and who left behind a legacy of corruption and religious repression.
 
The entire three days of celebration proceeded under the rubric “With Russia forever.” In his formal anniversary address, however, Kanokov implicitly acknowledged the divergence of views over the anniversary, affirming that however one chose to construe the 1557 pact, “it was the correct move,” and one thanks to which “the peoples of Kabardino-Balkaria managed to preserve their identity and culture,” the daily “Kommersant” reported.
 
The KBR Cherkess Congress issued a statement on September 7 in which it again challenged the Kremlin’s interpretation of the 1557 alliance and reaffirmed that the pact was a “military-political alliance” between “two equal subjects of international law,” kavkaz-uzel.ru reported. At the same time, the congress stated that in light of efforts in recent years by “destructive forces” to foment “destabilization” in the KBR, it would abstain from the protests it had originally planned to coincide with the official celebration.
 
Meanwhile, the republic’s Balkar minority too expressed diverging views of the anniversary celebration. Retired General Supyan Beppayev, who heads the pro-Kremlin organization Alan, told journalists in Nalchik on August 29 that the Balkars “should and will” participate in the anniversary celebrations, caucasustimes.com reported on August 30. But Oyus Gurtuyev of the Council of Elders of the Balkar People, a political organization that has strained relations with the republic’s authorities, made the point that it was the Kabardians who “voluntarily became part of the Russian Empire” in 1557, while the Balkars did so only 180 years ago, kavkaz-uzel.ru reported on September 7.
 
By contrast, Adygeya has opted for restraint rather than pomp and circumstance. Speaking on September 17 at a meeting of the committee tasked with organizing the anniversary celebrations, President Aslancheryy Tkhakushinov said that while Kanokov invited many federal politicians and the heads of numerous federation subjects, Adygeya has invited only representatives from Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachayevo-Cherkessia, Kuban, and Abkhazia. The highlights were apparently to be a formal parade and one big concert on September 26; also scheduled were various exhibits and a firework display.
 
In Karachayevo-Cherkessia too, the celebrations will be on a more modest scale than in Kabardino-Balkaria, and much of the population is reportedly uncertain exactly what is to be celebrated, kavkaz-uzel.ru reported on August 24. The website quoted a villager from Uchkeken in the extreme east of the republic as saying “to be I honest, I don’t know what’s being celebrated or who’s organizing it, but we’ll definitely go to the concert.” But a Cherkessk resident argued forcefully that “Adygeya and Kabardino-Balkaria can celebrate if they want, after all, the Kabardians married off their prince’s daughter to Ivan the Terrible, but what does that have to do with Karachayevo-Cherkessia?”

While many members of all three ethnic groups may simply greet the anniversary celebrations as a welcome departure from the daily grind, and as the catalyst for an injection of much-needed funding from Moscow to improve infrastructure, a minority clearly resents what Adyg activist Arambii Khapai on August 14 termed the “cynicism” with which Moscow’s interpretation of their history is being rammed down their throats. And that resentment is likely to fuel that minority’s alienation from Moscow, and its mistrust of republican leaders seen as Moscow’s compliant instruments.

http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/09/D5D86007-A749-4EA3-9CAA-8B759E54EE41.html

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PRIMA-News: Grozny: Protests at Budanov’s Release

28.12.2008 22:34 MSK

Grozny: Protests at Budanov’s Release










Roza and Visa Kungaev, the victim's parents
Roza and Visa Kungaev, the victim’s parents
CHECHNYA, Grozny. On 25 December a mass demonstration was held near Journalists’ Square in Grozny protesting the release of former colonel of the Russian army Yurii Budanov, who was sentenced in 2003 to 10 years in a colony for the abduction and murder of Elza Kungaeva, 17-year-old resident of the village of Tangi-Chu in Urus-Martanovskii district.

Demonstrators included students of Chechen higher educational institutions, and members of the republic’s rights-defence organisations, civic movements and political parties, in particular ‘United Russia’, the Information Centre of the Chechen Republic’s Union of NGOs has reported. Protesters carried posters saying: “Murderers Belong in Prison”, “No Freedom for Budanov”, “The Court and Budanov – in Cahoots?”.
Participants expressed strong protest at the decision of Dimitrovgradskii Court in Ul’ianovskaia region to grant early conditional release to the sadist Budanov. Demonstrators have described this decision as bringing shame upon the Russian justice system.

In the opinion of rights-defenders, there were no grounds whatsoever for the ex-colonel’s early release. Budanov had received negative reports from the penal colony administration; he had shown no remorse for his crime; and moreover, he had threatened to murder the father of the girl whom he had tormented. It should also be noted that Kungaeva’s family have yet to be paid any compensation, the Information Centre’s report emphasised.

The report states that any reasonable person would naturally be strongly opposed to and outraged by such benevolent and soft treatment of Yurii Budanov, rapist and murderer in officer’s epaulets. In the opinion of many residents of Chechnya, the decision only testifies once again to the fact that war criminals who have perpetrated atrocities against civilians in the Chechen Republic can remain confident of their continued impunity and complete lack of accountability.

The atrocious crime committed in Chechnya by Colonel Yurii Budanov, commander of the 160th tank regiment, became known in March 2000. According to military procuracy data, the drunken Colonel Budanov arrived in an armoured vehicle in the village of Tangi-Chu, located not far from where his unit was dislocated, and together with soldiers serving under him, abducted 17-year-old school pupil Elga Kungaeva from her home. Later, in his commander’s trailer, he raped the girl and strangled her. (The rape was for some reason not taken into consideration by the court.) After the murder, the colonel ordered his soldiers to take his victim’s corpse to the forst and bury it.

“Just as soon as the crime was discovered, Budanov attempted to evade responsibility. At first he feigned mental illness, and then three and a half years after the beginning of the investigation he suddenly ‘remembered’ that the school pupil whom he had murdered had been a ‘sniper’. Jingo-patriots came out in force in support of the rapist and murder, headed up by another sadist and leader of punitive expeditions General Vladimir Shamanov, under whom the ‘hero’ had served. It was only thanks to the constant public attention paid to this notorious case that Budanov’s defenders failed to cover it up and to enable the murder to avoid responsibility. Budanov was sentenced to 10 years in a strict regime colony. Now Budanov may be released early. It is not ruled that General Shamanov, who today occupies a high-ranking position in the Defence Ministry of Russia, may once again take him under his ‘wing’,” the SNO’s 26 December press release says.



Translated by Julie Elkner
PRIMA-News Agency [2008-12-26-Chech-26]

 

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IWPR: Caucasus: June ‘07

From: MSN NicknameEagle_wng  (Original Message)    Sent: 7/13/2007 3:55 PM
Caucasus: June ‘07

Leading Georgian newspaper acclaims IWPR’s regional reporting, saying republished stories prompt regular feedback from readers.

By Salla Nazarenko, Cross Caucasus Journalism Network Project leader
Paata Veshapidz, the editor of one of the biggest dailies in Georgia, 24 Hours, told IWPR in June that if it wasn’t for IWPR, their readers would know much less about neighbouring countries.

“Thanks to IWPR, our readers always get first-hand information about the situation in the region,” he said.

24 Hours republishes IWPR output weekly, and according to Veshapidze, the stories prompt readers to send him emails discussing the topics they raise.

“We sometimes put IWPR stories on the front page. Once there was an excellent story about refugees from South Ossetia, and there was so much feedback that we organised a round table about this issue in our office,” he said.

24 Hours is just one of the major news outlets in Georgia that relies on IWPR contributors’ ability to report issues, neglected by other media.

According to Tamar Khorbaladze, a producer on the Georgian Public Broadcasting TV show Moambe, the channel often uses IWPR’s Caucasus Reporting Service as a source of news.

“We sometimes even ask IWPR journalists in other Caucasian countries to follow up interesting stories they’ve produced for CRS. IWPR has a great network of journalists all over Caucasus,” said Khorbaladze.

Other media outlets republishing IWPR stories in Georgia include the local service of the Russian news agency Ria Novosti and the English-language daily Messenger.

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RAMADAN GREATINGS

From: Eagle_wng

RAMADAN GREATINGS

On the occasion of the incoming of the holy month of Ramadan, “Justice For North Caucasus Group” is pleased to great all members and visitors of the site.

Looking forward and wishing that all of you will be blessed and your present and future hopes and expectations will be fulfilled.

 

Ramadan Mubarak To All

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