The “Circassian Question”
Prepared by: Adel Bashqawi
The commemoration of 150 years of the end of the Tsarist Russian-Circassian War, and all the accompanied negative consequences, particularly the Circassian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing followed by forced Deportation of the Circassian nation, calls that a light should be shed on some of the facts and events linked with the different issues of the Circassian Genocide.
Circassia is located in Southeastern Europe, in the historical region of the Northwestern part of the Caucasus Mountains, on the Northeastern coast of the Black Sea (1). The Circassian civilization and culture of the North Western Caucasus had existed for more than 6000 years of continuous positive contribution to humanity that enhanced and enriched the human civilizations through thousands of years (65). It is situated in a strategic location within the Caucasus Plateau, which contains within its territories Mount Elbrus, the highest mountain in the European Continent with an elevation of 18,510 Feet.
Who are the Circassians?
The Circassians (55), being a European nation (34), the indigenous inhabitants of the Northwestern Caucasus (66), had lived in the same area (64), which confirms their existence since the earliest agriculture and the beginning of metal tool-making age (62). Circassians consisted of 12 tribes that are represented on their green flag by twelve golden stars beside three crossed arrows that symbolize union and peace. Their status was witnessed by “John Augustus Longworth” (63), and they were commonly called by others Circassians or Cherkess, as the name was designated by the Greeks, Turks or Russians; but their self-designated name and language is called Adygha. The Adygha tribes are Shapsugh, Kabarday, Abzakh (not to be confused with Abkhaz), Beslanay, Bjedugh, Hatuqwai, Jana, Mamkegh, Mokhosh, Natukhai, Temirgoy and Ubykh; but many of those tribes do not exist right now (67).
Walter Richmond (a professor at Occidental University) wrote in his book (56), (57) & (58):
“Circassia was a small independent nation on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea (6) & (7). For no reason other than ethnic hatred, over the course of hundreds of raids the Russians drove the Circassians from their homeland (53) and deported them to the Ottoman Empire. At least 600,000 people lost their lives to massacre, starvation, and the elements while hundreds of thousands more were forced to leave their homeland. By 1864, three-fourths of the population was annihilated, and the Circassians had become one of the first stateless peoples in modern history.”
Circassian MYTHOLOGY and Myths
Despite the devastating war, genocide, occupation, looting and destruction of national and personal holdings, the Circassians have managed to preserve part of their mythology, epos and myths. The valuable Circassian culture can be indicated by “the Nart Epos” (60), which there is similarity between the Circassian and old Greek literature, legends and epics as well as the literary taste quality, which one of the authors describe it as “the influence of Circassian mythology on the old Greek culture”.
In that regard, John Colarusso (a Professor at McMaster University in Canada) had published a book in the title of “Nart Saghas from the Caucasus” (61) that included “Circassian Myths and Legends. Also, he wrote an article on similar subjects in the title of, “Myths from the Forest of Circassia, The World & I”, dated “December, 1989” (9), which included “Two myths from the Circassians of the Caucasus Mountains offer detailed insights into the ancient veneration of trees and sacred groves”.
History Repeats Itself
After the “Treaty of Adrianople” of 14, September, 1829 signed between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, the Britannica encyclopedia affirmed: “The treaty allowed Russia to annex the islands controlling the mouth of the Danube River and the Caucasus coastal strip of the Black Sea, including the fortresses of Anapa and Poti. The Ottomans recognized Russia’s title to Georgia and other Caucasian principalities and opened the Straits of the Dardanelles and Bosporus to Russian shipping”. Nowadays, with Russian annexation of Crimea and the trend of developing the modern colonial greed to contain Eastern Ukraine and other areas proves ambitious for lust and control of others, as did Tsarist Russia, as well as the Soviet Union.
After the end of 101 years of invasion and prolonged Russian-Circassian war (8) which was waged by Tsarist Russia, Circassia was totally occupied in 21, May, 1864. The Tsarist Russian invaders and their mercenaries were bringing nothing but death, pain, destruction, disasters, and oppression, which played a great roll in totally occupying Circassia and resulted in genocide, ethnic cleansing and deporting 90% of the nation to a compulsory exile. The Circassian nation was deprived from its legitimate rights, when it was subjected to catastrophic and devastating consequences (59) as a result of the Russian-Circassian war and the Tsarist Russian occupation.
The profound effect of occupying Circassia and the geographical and demographical changes that were implemented by the Tsarist Russian state through its colonial occupation since the year 1864, had lead to series of occasions when the successive Russian regimes divided, re-divided, subdivided, and subsequently introduced functions that showed and proved the imperial intentions and greed (5), which demonstrated that those who performed all types of oppression and tyranny, in addition to authoritative imperial rules when dealing with the Circassian inhabitants, wanted the Circassian land without the Circassians. Adyghe Khasa (Association) in Maykop, the capital city of the Republic of Adygea has taken a decision to declare the year 2014 “A Year of Grief”. The basis of this decision is that this year commemorates the 150 years (21) of the end of the Russian-Circassian (Caucasian) War
When the Circassian and North Caucasian leaders felt, sensed, and became aware and ascertained that Russian invaders were closing in, they gathered in the Sochi area and they requested and appealed to the assumed great powers at the time, mainly the Ottoman Empire and Great Britain to get the assistance of stopping the greedy Imperial Russian invasion which got closer and closer to capturing and occupying the whole region; but they were faced and met with eternal silence from those great powers, and others. Some of them even witnessed, with blessings, the occupiers committed crimes. The arrival of two Circassian Chiefs (leaders), who represented the National Resistance in Circassia, to England in the year 1862, to inform the world about the Russian invasion and to seek help, didn’t help to stop the Circassian tragedy.
“Remember The Past, Live In The Present, Think Of The Future”
Walter Richmond’s book, “The Northwest Caucasus, Past, Present, Future” had detailed atrocities and crimes inflicted on the Circassians, and stated in the beginning of its “Introduction” a meaningful inscription that is reported being on a Memorial Stone, in Adygeisk, the Republic of Adygea, that is a tiny part of Circassia, which gives the inspiration when it is read: “Remember the past, live in the present, think of the future”. It is described that in his “FORWARD” to Walter Richmond’s book, Northwest Caucasus, John Colarusso marked an astonishing part of the book, which elaborated on all chapters of the book, and even speaks about the hard work taken by the author to finish the important project that was started years back, and reached a fruitful success.
The 21st of May of this year, marks the 150th anniversary of the defeat of the Circassians which was in the year 1864 at the hands of Tsar Aleksandr II, after 101 years of a continuous brutal war. Sochi being the last capital of independent Circassia from 1861 to 1864 was the site of the war’s last battles (25), and its port from which most of the Circassians were deported to the Ottoman Empire. Krasnaya Polyana(74) & (75), on the outskirt of Sochi, was the place at which Russian troops paraded to celebrate victory at the end of their savage war (30) &(31). Indeed, it has been obvious that the main goal of holding the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games is to liquidate all traces of the war which created a massacre (26),(27),(28) &(66), ethnic cleansing, and genocide (68), followed until now by categorical blatant denial (38),(39) &(40).
Having considered the declaration made by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution # 96 (I) dated 11 December 1946 that genocide is a crime in accordance with the international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world. The international community must know about the genocide that Russia had committed against the Circassian Nation, in which the occupying country and all its consecutive governments and regimes are jointly liable and responsible to abide by the international rule of law, and obliged to recognize genocide (15) and to be responsible to implement the law of punishment beside apology, compensation, resettlement of all exiled individuals and people is due in accordance with international or European obligation and protection, and to exercise the right of self-determination on Circassian soil.
The genocide committed against the Circassian nation in the 1800s was the biggest genocide of the Nineteenth Century
In an article published by the Finnish political historian and researcher, Antero Leitzinger on the “Global Politician” (14) in the title of the Circassian Genocide (45),(47), he mentioned the “The genocide committed against the Circassian nation by Czarist Russia in the 1800s was the biggest genocide of the nineteenth century. Yet it has been almost entirely forgotten by later history (24), while everyone knows the later Jewish Holocaust and many have heard about the Armenian genocide. “Rather than of separate, selectively researched genocides, we should speak of a general genocidal tendency that affected many – both Muslim and Christian – people on a wide scene between 1856 and 1956, continuing in post-Soviet Russia until today”, writes Antero Leitzinger. This article was originally published in “Turkistan News.””
Circassians have never forgotten their homeland (76) & (78), and accordingly Diaspora Circassians highly consider achieving the right of return to their homeland (Repatriation), which is one of the principles of the International Law (3), codified in the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” (4) and the “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”, giving any person the right to return to, and re-enter, his or her country of origin.
The Circassians are ready to stand for their legitimate rights, for as long as the terms and duration of occupation and exile may last, and would assure the rights and freedom of other people of different origins that are residing within the State of Circassia. In accordance with the spirit of honor, commons, norms, and moral behavior values known as “Adigha Khabza”, Circassians solely acknowledge the democratic, nonracist, non-fascist, and non-obsessed ways and means to achieve the restoration of the unity of the Circassian nation in its historical homeland, to revive, rebuild, and reorganize the organs, functions and all walks of life to assert and affirm the integrity of Circassian territories.
Genocide: Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes; and extermination, atrocities, massacre, killing fields, ethnic cleansing, and bloodbath (10).
• Murder of people;
• Burn of the villages of survived to ashes;
• Destruction of food reserves and crops;
• Expulsion of the population.
Circassians of Jordan Send Letters to the Russian Leadership
It is worth mentioning that in January, 2007, the main Circassian Charity Society in Jordan, in an unprecedented way, and on behalf of Circassians, had sent a letter, which was not the last time to the Russian President, Vladimir Putin during his visit to Jordan. The letter included Circassian demands, in regard to the Circassian justified human rights and the most important of all is the Right of Return to homeland, but no response to the letter has yet been received from the Russian Federation Presidency office.
Putin brought with him the so-called heads of the so-called autonomous Circassian republics in the North Caucasus, who are Russian officials in the first place. Meetings and talks had taken place between the Circassians who are “Russian Officials” of the Russian (autonomous) Republics of Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Adygea on one side and the Circassian leaders of the Circassian Diaspora of Jordan on the other, on issues of concern to the Circassian Diaspora, which coincide with the consequences of the results of Russian-Circassian War and deportation. A written statement on cooperation and solving existing urgent issues, but neither tangible results nor fulfillment of what was agreed upon was achieved.
Similar letters were sent at other times to the Russian leadership to seek discussing matters of importance, in regard to the consequences of the Circassian Deportation, but no replies were received, which seems to be lack of interest and lack of seriousness in dealing with the Circassian affairs!
Circassians (69) have indicated in many occasions that they are open for a dialogue with the Russian State without preconditions in order to solve out the unresolved issues (13) that need appropriate and proper solutions.
Georgia’s Recognition of the Circassian Genocide
Circassians have sent letters to the Russian leadership, Russian State Duma, and to the European Parliament (11) & (12) in order to draw the attention to a forgotten nation. Being two of the nations of the Caucasus, Circassians approached the Georgians which resulted in holding conferences that dealt with the Circassian Question, and the Circassian Activists had initiated a letter to the Georgian Parliament (18) to recognize the Circassian Genocide depending on facts and documents available in the Russian and Georgian archives.
The friendly gestures initiated by the Caucasian Republic of Georgia will not be forgotten by the Circassian people, when the Georgian Parliament had recognized the Circassian Genocide (18),(43) &(44), and founding the “Circassian Genocide Monument” in Anklia (77) on the Black Sea where Circassian Deportees were gathered during the Russian-Circassian War in order to be deported across the Black Sea to the Ottoman Empire.
The Georgian support was crowned in September, 2013, by President Mikhail Saakashvili’s sincere words towards Circassians at the General Assembly of the United Nations (41),(42) “That’s why the Georgian Parliament has recognized [in May, 2011] genocide of Circassian people – one of the most unknown and tragic pages of history of the world, when the whole nation was wiped out because their land was needed by the Russian Empire.”. He affirmed that the Georgian Parliament had recognized the Circassian Genocide, which encourages Circassians to strive for restoring their legitimate rights, as hope springs eternally.
The Syrian Factor
Since the Syrian civil war erupted in March, 2011, misery of war consequences have chased the Circassians of Syria (22), who have suffered being in the center of the battles between the warring factions, which brought back the memories of suffering of the Circassians since they were deported from their homeland (54), and witnessed the 1967 War. The problem is like a snow ball enlarging with time and developments, but what has been the worst for this topic is the blockage and clog up of all the prospects in regard to enabling the Circassians of Syria (22) to return to their original homeland, which were and still are prevented by the Russian authorities, regardless of appeals from Circassians in the North Caucasus, Russian cities such as Moscow and Diaspora, of the misery of war consequences.
Circassians consistently and repeatedly have forwarded their demands to the Russian authorities to allow Circassians of Syria (23) to return to their original homeland due to the unbearable situation in Syria (20). The Circassians in the North Caucasus, and the “far larger Circassian community abroad” were shocked by a declaration of a Russian official that his government has not yet decided whether the Circassians in Diaspora are “compatriots” which they are consequently entitled to return to their homeland!
Aleksandr Zhuravsky, the Head of the International Department of the Russian Ministry of Regional Development responded to a letter sent by Adam Bogus, the Head of the Circassian Adyge Khase in the Republic of Adegea to Sergey Naryshkin, the Russian State Duma Speaker, requesting that Moscow provide assistance for Circassians of Syria to return to their homeland, which was transferred to the Russian Regional Development Ministry for consideration. The Ministry’s letter had provoked anger after it was widely disseminated, because it stated, “the Syrian Circassians are the descendents of refugees from among the Adyge peoples of the North and West Caucasus who did not accept Russian citizenship and made a voluntary choice to leave the region after the completion of military operations in the course of the Caucasus War”!
A letter from the President of the Circassian Social Movement “Adygeya Khasa – The Twenty-First Century” Amin Zekhizv to the Russian State Duma and the Russian Ministry of Regional Development on behalf of Circassians in the North Caucasus (which respectfully addresses Diaspora Circassians opinion) which was addressed to Zhuravsky, and thanked him for being “the only person who placed the point on the ongoing historical lie since 500 years ago on the so-called Circassia’s voluntary accession to Russia”.
The World’s Consideration is Needed
Circassians would believe that the United Nations, the European Union, the United States of America, and all international human rights organizations are urged to execute their duties and responsibilities to apply the human values and to recognize the sacred right of self-determination and the right of restoring dignity, freedom, and independence.
The world, with its moral obligation to follow up and resolve international issues is urged to stand in solidarity with the Circassian people who are struggling for human rights and democracy. Circassians seek the International assistance for the application of international law, justice and respect of human rights in order to restore the confiscated rights. As war is considered failure of human wisdom, then who brought the war and destruction to Circassia and the other parts of the North Caucasus, must be held accountable and responsible for the consequences and results. “We cannot despair of humanity, since we ourselves are human beings”.
Indeed, the United Nations, the European Union, Canada, the United States of America, and all international human rights organizations are urged to execute their duties and responsibilities to apply the human values and to recognize the sacred right of self-determination, and the right of restoring dignity, freedom, and independence. Certainly, Russians with clear conscious, who bear a touch of humanity, and observe the values of human rights will be definitely the Russian side that will extend the well of peace plus open horizons of hope, and will be ready to accept the facts and to recognize the right of Circassia as one of the nations of the occupied North Caucasus for the freedom to chose and to be able to decide on self-determination, with the opportunity of establishing peaceful relations with neighboring countries in accordance with mutual respect.
Future Prospects and points Related to the Justified Circassian Demands
The Circassian nation that is still denied of its fundamental rights by genocide should be given the chance to address the following:
1. To work on the revival of an integrated entity of Circassia (71) in the North Caucasus.
2. The right of return to homeland, and an organization should be formed to be able to recover the rights of victims from the occupying authorities, in cooperation with international bodies.
3. Ensure the rights of Circassians, including attaining the legitimate rights to freedom, human dignity, freedom to choose, and right to self-rule, therefore it is essential that the Diaspora Circassians should be involved to take the necessary steps to give their nation, the strength and the necessary means to restore the confiscated rights, which are the legitimate ones to self-determination. It would be good asset to consider the multiplicity of countries that Circassian communities reside at, which would be a positive factor that will positively affect the course of resolving the Circassian Question.
4. The Russian government must bear liability for the crimes committed against the Circassian people during the Tsarist and Soviet eras, and therefore do what is necessary in such situation in accordance with the International Law.
5. Dealing with the achievement of a just peace for the Circassian nation in accordance with the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, and human high-quality examples of freedom and equality, so that investigation should be carried out on the crimes of genocide and deportation exerted by Russia against the Circassian people. An organization or an institution should be formed for recovering the rights of victims along with the international institutions and bodies, or by their attentiveness.
6. As a result, because all the victims were subjected to genocide and forced deportation, where it seemed a terrible conspiracy at that period between Tsarist Russia and other countries at the time, according to the appeal of former President Yeltsin (2) to the peoples of the North Caucasus on the elapse of 130 years of the end of the Russian – Caucasian war, Russia as usual wanted to evade taking responsibility for what had committed, which Yeltsin wanted to put the blame on countries he mentioned by name, the “Russian Empire, Britain, France, Iran, and Turkey”, and said that “all bear their shares of moral responsibility to the suffering of the Mountainous peoples(the Circassians)”! Late President Yeltsin added “the results of the Caucasian / Russian war, which had caused many human victims and material losses, are still until now causing pain in the hearts of many Russians. Let the soil be the sacrifice for those who fell on the battlefield and lost their lives by the harshness of war, and those who left their homeland and died in alienation while suffering the bitterness of the loss of homeland. Let the memory of the sad events be kept in the hearts of the grandchildren to serve us all, and move us away from new tragedies.”
7. A discussion should be tackled concerning the damage inflicted at the location of 2014 Sochi(16) Winter Olympic Games, (the land and the graves of those who have been exposed to massacres and genocide), which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List and accordingly should have been and still respected and protected.
8. To preserve the nation’s heritage represented by the Circassian culture, literature, art, music and folklore, and to stop the loss and/or the extinction of the Adigha language.
9. The Circassians need an independent Media in order to address the “Circassian Question” and all related matters.
10. Circassians of Syria must be assisted to leave the “ongoing” civil war zone in Syria to safety whether to their ancestral homeland located in the North Caucasus or to a safe haven until the Circassian issue is addressed properly by all concerned.
11. To address issues of genocide, ethnic cleansing and all sorts of war crimes committed against the Circassian people that led to the forced deportation to a compulsory exile, which includes Circassians forcibly deported from their homeland and moreover, the perpetrator must be obliged to accept the following:
- The recognition of genocide committed against Circassians, pointing out that the closest the Russian government has come to apologizing for the bloodshed was in 1994, when President Boris Yeltsin acknowledged that resistance to Tsarist’s invasion was legitimate.
- Formal apology for the Circassian nation by the Russian State.
- Fair compensation in accordance with the decision that must be taken by decision-makers in this prospect.
- Emphasis on Circassian identity and the rights of the Circassian human being for the basic rights of freedom and human dignity.
- The right of return and rehabilitation to Motherland.
- The exercise of the right to self-determination in accordance with the International Law and Charter of United Nations.
The restoration of usurped and confiscated rights, are derived based on the International Law, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the Charter of the United Nations in addition to the resolutions of the Special Political and Decolonization Committee formed by the General Assembly of the United Nations, for the need to observe the legitimate rights to self-determination and the right of freedom of choice and self-determination.
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
The Russian Federation is not complying with the “United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples” (19) concerning the Circassians and tens of other nations who are ruled by Moscow, the declaration stated by the “General Assembly of the United Nations” on the 13th of September, 2007, which establishes a universal framework of minimum standards for the survival, dignity, well-being and rights of the world’s indigenous peoples.
The Declaration addresses both individual and collective rights; cultural rights and identity; rights to education, health, employment, language, and others. It outlaws discrimination against indigenous peoples and promotes their full and effective participation in all matters that concern them. It also ensures their right to remain distinct and to pursue their own priorities in economic, social and cultural development.
That explicitly encourages harmonious and cooperative relations between States and indigenous peoples. The right to return and rehabilitate to original homeland must be granted and to “fulfill the rights of indigenous peoples to their traditional lands, territories,” (5) – Also indigenous people in the Russian Federation are “entitled to the enjoyment of all internationally recognized human rights – including those specific to their indigenous identity – in a condition of full equality with all other human beings resources, which include the right to restitution of the ancestral lands, territories”.
Russian Pravda newspaper on 13 – Jan, published an article for Alexander Born (69), entitled “Russia and the Circassians”, in which the writer referred to Russian actions in the Caucasus in general and with the Circassians in particular, where he says in one of the paragraph: “In view of the potential of the Circassian capabilities in the world, there is no suspicions that the question of the recognition of the genocide will be deployed in all parts of the world, either with the assistance of Russia or without, Circassians, one day will return to their historic Homeland. The only difference is that, whether Russia will decide that or take a resolution in this issue, then it will be guaranteed that Circassians would remain within its structure (within Federal Republic of Russia), but if such return was implemented or supported by the international community, that means that Russia will get many complex problems”.
A quote of what the Circassian journalist and Human Rights activist, Fatima Tlisova, had said in a lecture delivered at Jamestown Foundation in Washington, DC, during the conference (70), “Circassia: Past, Present and Future”, which marked the memory of the Circassian Mourning on date, 21-5 – in 2007. Being born in the Circassian part of the North Caucasus, she talked extensively on the conditions experienced and still, in the North Caucasus under the difficult circumstances, “Unfortunately, there is no time to pin-point all areas of national difficulties that the Circassians suffer as of the pressure from the authorities. “I often speak with people who I may consider them as people of precautionary conviction who are cautious and they say: Come on, you must understand, things are not so bad, and that means that we are not right now at a state of war with Russia, as well as they add that we must be friends with Russia. This kind of friendship in my personal opinion is like the friendship between a beef steak and the digestive system”.
In another paragraph she continues, and mentions that the Circassians are still targeted, “We are already swollen, but there is the problem of digesting us, however, the acid in the Russian politics means that the fatal end is not far from Circassians. It is very important to understand that the reason for Russia’s ability to maintain its position in the Caucasus is exclusively due to the use of force, intimidation and the threat of the use of force (49),(50),(51)&(52), and we Circassians, thanks to Russia, we stand on the brink of extinction”.
An interview conducted in the month of April, 2009, with Dr. Musa Shanib (72) & (73), known in Russian as Yury Shanibov, born in Nalchik in the month of May, 1935, mentioned that he considered the Circassian World (which includes Circassians at Homeland and Diaspora), is distributed over a wide geographical area that includes fifty-three countries of the world, and talks about the start of the recall of the Circassian tragedy that took place by the end of the Russian/Caucasian War in the year 1961, and described that as a stimulation for Circassians after a century of compulsory silence, which has spread to all countries inhabited by the Circassians; that reminds of the Russian proverb: “Nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so”, and continues that the disaster, which distributed Circassians around the world, may turn into a positive trend by the consolidation of freedom and homeland, and when the Circassian Diaspora brings to Motherland the positive experience of advanced technology.
References and Links
(1) Map of Circassia*
(2) The Text of former President Yeltsin’s Telegram (Wire), to the peoples of the North Caucasus*
(3) The International Law *
(4) Universal Declaration of Human Rights *
(5) The Circassian Mobility Between The North Caucasus And Diaspora *
(6) Declaration of Circassian of Independence *
(7) Circassian Independence: Thoughts on the Current Political Situation of the Circassians *
(8) The Russian-Circassian War (1763- 1864) *
(9) Myths from the Forests of Circassia *
(10) Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide *
(11) Adygs Ask European Parliament to Recognize Genocide *
(12) Adygs ask European parliament to recognize genocide of XVIII-XIX centuries *
(13) Fatima Tlisova Speaks at a Conference in The Parliament Of Finland *
(14) The genocide committed against the Circassian nation by Czarist Russia in the 1800s was the biggest genocide of the nineteenth century. Antero Leitzinger *
(15) A stain in Russian history The Circassian Genocide 1864 *
(16) The terrible fate of Sochi’s former inhabitants *
(17) On the 20th of May, 2011, the Georgian Parliament has unanimously recognized the Circassian Genocide, as 95 Members of Parliament against none have voted for a historical document. *
(18) Circassian Genocide – The History of Problem, Chronicles of Events, the Scientific Conclusion *
(19) United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples *
(20) The Circassians of Syria: Opting for the Rightful Cause *
(21) THE CIRCASSIAN QUESTION DURING THE YEAR 2013 *
(22) Circassia: A Circassian Take On Syrian War *
(23) Syria’s ethnic Circassians seek Russia return *
(24) The Circassians: a forgotten genocide? *
(25) The Lost Tribe Of Sochi *
(26) Matthew Light on the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics *
(27) 5 reasons why Sochi’s Olympics may be the most controversial Games yet *
(28) Sochi Olympic largesse barely touches nearby Circassian villages *
(29) Circassia: Peacefully Boycotting the Sochi Olympics
(30) The Olympics’ forgotten people *
(31) Op-Ed: Sochi’s bloody history BY CAROLYN HARRIS, OTTAWA CITIZEN *
(32) Fatima Tlisova: Putin Blames Circassian Protests on the West Amid Arrests
(33) Russia: New Harassment of Olympic Critics
(34) Was Modern Europe’s First Genocide in Sochi? *
(35) Sochi’s indigenous on the sidelines
(36) Putin’s Party, National Geographic Report
(37) Sochi: Ethnic Cleansing, Genocide, and Putin’s Olympics
(38) The Sochi Games Are Being Held on the Land of Genocide
(39) Winter of Discontent / Circassians are protesting the holding of the 2014 Winter Olympic Games 150 years after being expelled from their land
(40) Russia’s Sochi Olympics awakens Circassian anger
(41) Saakashvili’s Speech (Video) at the UN General Assembly – 2013 *
(42) Saakashvili’s Speech (Text) at the UN General Assembly – 2013 *
(43) Georgia recognizes Russian slaughter of Circassians as genocide *
(44) Georgia Recognizes Russian ‘Genocide’ Of Ethnic Circassians *
(45) The Reality of Circassian Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide *
(46) Sochi is the scene of a terrible crime against Circassian people
(47) The Ethnic Cleansing of the Circassians – A Silent Genocide? *
(48.a) Putin Says West Using Circassian Issue to ‘Contain’ Russia
(48.b) Putin Makes the Circassian Issue Part of Russia’s Relations with the West
(49) Russia detains Caucasus activists ahead of Olympics *
(50) Activists say leader of indigenous Circassian minority detained amid tensions over Olympics *
(51) Dispatches: No Closing Ceremonies Yet for Harassment of Activists *
(52) Circassian Leader Reportedly Detained Near Sochi *
(53) Taras Shevchenko’s “The Caucasus”: Circassian Heroism Immortalized *
(54) The Circassians of Syria: Opting for the Rightful Cause *
(56) Walter Richmond – Evidence of Circassian Genocide from Archives *
(57) The Northwest Caucasus: Past, present, future *
(58) The Circassian Genocide (Genocide, Political Violence, Human Rights) by Walter Richmond *
(59) Let Our Fame Be Great: Journeys Among the Defiant People of the Caucasus by Oliver Bullough *
(60) The Nart Tales of the Circassians by Amjad Jaimoukha *
(61) Nart Sagas from the Caucasus [Introduction], by John Colarusso *
(62) Circassian History by Kadir I. Natho *
(63) A Year Among the Circassians, by John Augustus Longworth *
(64) Circassian Culture and Folklore: Hospitality Traditions, Cuisine, Festivals & Music, by Amjad Jaimoukha *
(65) Books to Read on the Circassians *
(66) The Massacre in History – The Circassians / A Forgotten Genocide, by Mark Levene, Penny Roberts and Stephen Shenfield *
(67) Circassians – The Other Russians Day 4 *
(68) The Mid-Nineteenth Century Genocidal “Pacification” of the Circassians in the Russian Caucasus *
(69) Россия и черкесы *
(70) Fatima Tlisova *
(71) Window on Eurasia: Circassians Call for Single Circassian Republic in North Caucasus *
(72) Musa Shanib in the Caucasus: a political odyssey *
(73) Musa Shanib: The 21st of May Sounds The Alarm Again! *
(74) Krasnaya Polyana: Breaking the 150 Years of Silence (Part Two) *
(75) Krasnaya Polyana: Breaking the 150 Years of Silence (Part Two) *
(76) The Near, but Far Away Homeland *
(77) Circassian Genocide Memorial in Anaklia, Georgia *
(78) Freedom for N. Caucasus demonstration during the Soviet era *
A photo showing a Circassian demonstration in New York City in early 70’s of the Twentieth Century