Attempts to Restore Faded Glories of an Empire

Attempts to Restore Faded Glories of an Empire

By: Adel Bashqawi

January 1, 2021


The passage of time has not changed domineering colonial mindset since the era of adopting the policy of expansion, conquest and despotism of the Russian Empire. The change of successive regimes has proven that their colonial mentality has never changed, while the successive generations who adopted and still embrace ideas, principles and rituals, which are contrary to democratic basics and the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Actually,  they still behave in contradiction with human concepts in their activities, words and deeds. Obviously, it is neither the ruling regimes, nor the Russian Orthodox Church, nor the extremist groups associated with them, believe to this day to stop marginalizing others, as they have not kept pace with the development of technology in line with respect of others irrespective of their origin, culture, or religion, where the progress of science has not changed the superficial view based on expansionist nationalism. In short, it is indispensable to address the traditional exclusionary methods and failure to understand what a respect for human dignity represents. However, the Circassians through their intellectuals, steer the moral compass and present the facts that speak for themselves. The narrow-minded parties can’t adapt to technologies based on global civilization that considers mutual respect that would include all peoples and nations with no exception. Thus, they create crises to break the laws according to different perspectives, mainly, for the sake of intimidating the peoples and nations, who were victims of the colonial policies of barbaric invasion and their consequences.


Colonial countries and powers have not only played chess on an imperial global chess board, but they even simulated that on the ground, even if it takes to stir up unrest and merciless warfares. Imperialists have started their adventures with humble capabilities, then constituently implemented their expansionist policies by waging extermination wars and invasions against scores of peoples, nations, and ethnicities in various places surrounding their original borders and beyond.

They exploited their selfishness and greed for the sake of  utilizing their war-games for the acquisition of more wealth, seize territories and subjugate peoples. Their brutal techniques of murder, annihilation, ethnic cleansing and forced deportation are the tragic consequences and facts of their eternal shame. Their ultimate goal has always been and still, to get hold of more territories and annex the homelands of others, for the sake of exploiting and utilizing the occupied land and sea ports as strategic territories to reach places that were previously faraway and even were inaccessible.

Insofar as one resents the actions of the Russian state against the non-Russian citizens, as far as events seem to be as usual without any positive change to the peoples who ended up being subject to one of the colonial powers. They function according to an approach that can be described as penalizing the indigenous population from day one. Authoritarianism and bullying over peoples and nations take place in this concept to rule them according to an imperial agenda founded since the nineteenth century. Apparently, this path tends to steer in reverse course of moderation and human trend of incorruptibility. But more reasonable and broad-minded stance appears on the other side of the equation, which appears more sensible and wise. All the mentioned above does not prevent peoples from being optimistic. Their long-term high-expectation is symbolized by hope and aspiration to regain freedom, rights and to choose the way of life that is necessarily consistent with their national objectives.

Even with a sea of blood had been shed and generated deep, ulcerated wounds and unhealed spiritual wounds for decades, no peaceful breakthrough is felt, which is realized by perceptual cues.

Apparently, the descendants of those who founded and strengthened the Russian colonial policies have determined to maintain and even aggravate ethnic conflicts and remind of the human tragedies. The extreme chauvinists wanted to turn that into swamps and bodies of stagnant water that smell of victims and missing innocent people. This dangerous behavior will produce various hazards that will harm everyone in all directions, while seeking to retain the tragic effects and consequences. That made the innocent victims of the Circassian people, beside tens of other peoples and nations, remain in the spotlight while  the suffering continues indefinitely.

Furthermore, even with the elimination of the the Russian empire, and  the abdication of the last emperor, Nicholas II in July, 1917, then murdering him on July 1918, together with his entire Romanov family, the abducted peoples and nations during the (Tsarist) Russian Empire’s era, were kept under Russian/Soviet rule and guardianship, regardless of the nonsense rhetorical statements such as, the change has “swept away the old laws of the tsarist regime against freedoms of speech and assembly. Russia was transformed into what Lenin called the ‘freest country in the world.’” [1]

The Mask Fell off the Mask

‘The mask fell off the mask’ description can be borrowed to emphasize that a ‘beat dog bites’. Thereupon,”sometimes it’s not the people who change, it’s the mask that falls off.” [2]

The call for change initiated by the revolutionary factions, soon turned out to be bogus. Apparently, an oppressive police state has loomed, which emerged from the womb of the revolution, in a situation that was not very different from the corruption of the rotting empire. “Its emancipatory potential and its limitless promise were both squashed ruthlessly by the very party that claimed to speak on behalf of the people.” There were great hopes held by the masses for the revolution through the goals that were presented and struggled for at the beginning. Thus, “ensuring rights of minorities and ethnic nationalities were some of these far-reaching changes. But it wasn’t long before the slide towards despotism began and the state came down with a heavy hand on dissidents, including rebels on the left.” [3]

Hence, a lull in the activities of the colonial incursion and the practice of authoritarian methods on some peoples during the Russian Revolution period of distraction because the main military forces were involved in the political chaos and were occupied with the events taking place in the capital and major Russian cities’ regions. However, the successive regimes continued on the mission in waging brutal criminal wars, military operations, and colonial ambitions had not eased against peoples, nations and territories that the Russian Empire had previously pursued and implemented its tyrannical and authoritarian policies of subjugation and annexation over decades.

Even though, “the end of the monarchy was marked by scenes of rejoicing throughout the Russian Empire. Symbols of monarchical power—emblems, coats of arms, double-headed eagles, and tsarist statues—were destroyed.” [4] During the 20th and 21st centuries, well-known parties and Media outlets, protected by authorities and supported by the Orthodox Church recall past memories to the point of praising the colonial achievements of the Russian Empire.

After the Russian revolution of 1917, some peoples in certain Caucasian dominant populated areas of the Caucasus have seized the opportunity, to establish “the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus.” However, “once Soviet rule was established during the Russian Civil War, the republic was abolished then converted to an ASSR of the RSFSR.” To prove this as a fact, “On 11 May 1918 The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus was officially established.”

“The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus was created from parts of the Kuban and Terek Oblasts by the indigenous nationalities after the Russian Revolution; however, this matches the proverb: “Sometimes it’s not the people who change. It’s the mask that falls off…” [5], where Soviet rule was installed on this territory after the Red Army conquered the Northern Caucasus in the course of the Russian Civil War, and the former republic was transformed into a Soviet one.” [6]

Repetitive Renaming of Cities and Places

Undoubtedly, the situation of unrest the state of chaos in the arbitrary release of names and the lack of respect for the national symbols that concern them, has generated a state of recklessness in choosing the names. As if they are missing around with children’s game that is changed in form and color from time to time. Knowing the importance of names lies in the fact that they have historical, heritage, cultural, national and civilizational meanings and deeds. This depiction, by the way, is what they did and are still acting in the Circassian part of the North Caucasus, where names and landmarks have been and are still being changed and violated, not to mention the demographic change that they forcibly brought about since 1864.

A Lenin statue (and a bird) in front of the House of Soviets on Moskovskaya Ploschad in St. Petersburg. (Photo: Fredrik Tombra) /  Liden & Denz.

A Lenin statue (and a bird) in front of the House of Soviets on Moskovskaya Ploschad in St. Petersburg. (Photo: Fredrik Tombra) /
Liden & Denz.

With regard to that topic, cities’ names were changed many times, such as Saint Petersburg city, which was renamed four times since it was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great. From Saint Petersburg to Petrograd through Leningrad and back to Saint Petersburg. [7] “After the collapse of the USSR, St. Petersburg regains its historical name after the referendum, but sadly, was one of the most bandit places in the country. However, currently the city is absolutely safe, and the country has recovered from ruins left after the collapse of the soviet union.” [8]

Circassian Experience with Russian Nostalgia’s Infinite Euphoria

The contemporary Russian nationalists are consisted of supporters of  the Orthodox Church that restored much of its Tsarist-Russian era’s influence on the society, in addition to nationalist groups linked with the power structures. They have created a common base between the Tsarist Empire, the Soviet Union, the Orthodox Church and the power structures of the Russian Federation. This created problems between ethnicities, nationalities and religions in the Russian Federation.

Infinite euphoria, although it was a painstaking victory against a very small nation in comparison with a relatively large colonial empire that has large, strong and well equipped armed forces alongside allied militias of mercenaries. They utilized oppressive methods and scorched earth policy of destruction and extermination.

In short, the explicitness in expressing viewpoints have contributed to publish what in the different parties’ minds. On the one hand, while disregarding the pains and supplication of the oppressed, supporters of imperialism and colonialism falsify history and spread their threadbare agendas, hypothesis and narratives, but in the meantime they are living in false comfort. On the other hand, the Circassian side steers the moral compass and presents the facts that speak for themselves, regarding the inability of the Circassian nation to enjoy equal and just rights in a federation that has not been properly shared among its supposed members. Thus, the Circassians have not been able to use their language, culture, political, social, and economic rights in the way that the ethnic Russians enjoy.

The actual fighting of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is replaced however by different ways and means. The harsh realty shows that there is a fertile environment of organized propaganda and misinformation that was prepared and maintained, starting with falsification and forgery of documented history, to the extent of manipulation of the facts of the invasion of the Russian Empire and the disastrous results that occurred, ending with the annihilation of half the Circassian nation and the presence of 90% of them until today in a global diaspora that extends to more than fifty countries of the world of today. Circassians were forcibly deported from their country because of war, violence and persecution.

“The anti-democratic regime that has been tried to be built throughout Russia since the 2000s, assumed an institutional character with the latest constitutional amendment and gained its legal status with a referendum held for  show off. Although this constitutional change has been evaluated as an effort to extend Putin’s power in the worlds’ public opinion, the real problem is that with this constitutional amendment, peoples living in Russia, who are not ethnically Russian, are evaluated as second-class citizens. After this constitutional amendment the increasing racist rhetoric, which is taking an

organized form in Russia, the provocative attempts carried out in the Caucasus and the pressure on activists all show that Russia has assumed a quality that can pave the way for new massacres while boasting of its civilian massacres and colonial heritage instead of confronting its colonial past.” [9]

Sterile and rotten colonial mentality, based on nationalism, chauvinism, self-centeredness and abolition of the other has not vanished. It is not over yet, but quite the opposite. It is still visible to everyone. It is encouraged and rather applied by some regional and federal organs of the ruling authorities, apparently in coordination and cooperation of instructions issued by the Orthodox Church.

The Russians couldn’t overcome their colonial ambitions and greed, and thus the policies of exclusion, oppression and tyranny that would lead necessarily to the practice a kind of the notorious apartheid policy, against the capabilities of the subjugated peoples and nations. This phenomenon is clearly seen as intellectual stagnation with no apparent recovery. However, stubborn trend will eventually fall thunderously and the rights of peoples are not subject to statute of limitations.

Nevertheless, it is pity that clowns and agitators impose commemorating and honoring the evil empire’s commanders and generals, who served the emperors and implemented the aggressive policies committed crimes against humanity, is considered acceptable in contemporary Russian Federation. Realities on the ground have proven that it is impossible that crimes of mass destruction, annihilation and deportation against the vast majority of an afflicted nation will pass without accountability.

They keep constructing and erecting monuments, statues and memorial stones for the Tsarist Russian commanders and Generals. Particularly, those who committed all types of crimes and acts of unspeakable cruelty against the indigenous Circassian people, in addition to other citizens and peoples of the Caucasus. After all those vicious deeds, they also, tend to erect crosses on mountain peaks and specific and strategic locations, simultaneously, they show constant attempts of denigrating ethnic groups and the inveterate and deep-rooted cultures and civilizations. [10]

To marginalize the Circassians in their own homeland, many monuments and statues of Russian conquerors were erected. Those who are being memorialized, had led the hordes of barbaric Russian invaders against Circassians, committed crimes of unspeakable cruelty, violence, exploitation and abuse against innocent people, who were defending their legal justified rights. An asymmetric warfare had taken place between Circassian simple means and weapons against heavy military means and weapons possessed by a modern Russian military arsenal.

“{An aggressive policy of memory, which can be expressed both in the destruction of monuments and in the setting up of new ones leads to a situation in which entire peoples are reduced to mere ‘footnotes’ in the historical narrative of the rulers} and thus are kept from dealing with their own history in ways that allow them to overcome continuing traumas.” [11]

Trans-Generational regime of chauvinism has proven that changing political regimes in Russia doesn’t necessarily erase and/or change the imperial or colonial agenda, regardless of the nature of the political regime. However, on the contrary, it seems that the momentum of offending others is glorified by the criminal activities and annihilation wars committed by murderer leaders during the commitment of their colonial expansionist policies. This is renewed by perpetuating racial discrimination, xenophobia, intolerance that the current Russian nationalist fanatics are promoting. They are existing and emulating their counterparts who preceded them during the imperial era through the Soviet time. They are aiming at seizing and confiscating the rights and capabilities of the oppressed peoples and nations indefinitely.

The biggest proof that these facts can prove is that the symbols that symbolize the empire, its power and its greatness have remained to the present day through the statues and symbols of the Russian Empire. Some of the erected monuments in the Caucasus, especially the Circassian part of the Northwestern Caucasus are meant to commemorate the Tsarist Russian invasion and its consequences that included destruction, occupation, annihilation and deportation. Attachment1 of “Circassians Speak Up Against the Colonial Policies of Russia!” published by: the “Circassian Information Office,” has listed the names of Russians who got monuments erected in their names: [12]

Emperor Alexander II — Place: Sochi.

General Lazarev — Place: Sochi.

General Von Zass — Place: Armavir.

Arkhip Osipov — Place: Gelencik.

Mikhail Romanov — Place: Maykop.

Alexander Suvorov — Place: Maykop.

Marshal Alexander Suvorov — Place: Stavropol.

General Aleksey Yermolov — Place: Stavropol.

General Yermolov Monument — Place: Pyatigorsk.

General Yermolov  — Place Pyatigorsk (2).

General Yermolov — Place: Minvod.

General Yermolov — Minvod.

General Yermolov — Place: Sochi.

Katherina II — Krasnodar.

Katherina II — Place: Sochi.

Marshal Alexander Suvorov — Place: Krasnodar.

Grigory Rashpil — Place: Krasnodar.

Nikolai Ivanovich Evdokimov — (Potenial) Krasnodar.

A scaled-down replica of the Katherina II monument in Krasnodar was erected in the center of Sochi in 2011.

There is unjustified agitation of some segments of the Russian society that work day and night to diminish human rights to the point of offending the peoples and nations controlled by the current Russian authorities, as an emanation of the consequences of the Russian expansion plans and colonial policies.

“In short, what the powers that be are doing with the intent of wiping out the history of the conquered has the effect of reinforcing the importance to them of challenging that narrative and insisting on their own, Tlostanova suggests. The Circassian scholar draws on the idea of ‘colonial aphasia,’ a concept developed by Ann Laura Stoler of New York’s New School for Social Research to explain how the deprivation of historical memory by the conquerors continues with new statues and intentionally deprives the subject peoples of their history and even ability to talk about it.” [13]

Regrettably, when the official establishment sheds innocent blood, it will antagonize feelings and national emotions through changing the names of locations. Their famous uncalculated games is creating the ground for the tendency of clash of civilizations that has already produced shock and rift. All this because of the contradiction, the lack of clarity of vision and the absence of common goal, which characterize the flawed policy of the state that decided to continue the colonial obsession policies.

Madina TLOSTANOVA, Professor at Linköping University, Sweden, said in an interview on 23 July, 2020: “States and political regimes use monuments as silent yet powerful symbols of their dominance and the imposition and normalization of their model of history.” She also said: “The rhetoric of those who demand the preservation of monuments to war criminals and colonialists, and even more the construction of new ones, is based on gross simplification and distortion, on sanctioned ignorance.” [14]

It led to a decisive public reaction that can not be underestimated from the descendants of the victims who were annihilated and expelled while defending their historical homeland, Circassia. Indeed, there are now more demands to remove these colonial monuments that represent the ambitious criminal leaders, Generals and colonialists. They have been erecting these since the invasion and occupation of the Circassian homeland until now, according to the concept of false history, falsification and fabrication of the events of the invasion, occupation, extermination, ethnic cleansing and forced deportation.

Majid Chachukh, Head of the Adygey Khase in Krasnodar that in 1989, 24 primary regional organizations of Black Sea Circassian-Shapsugs, united to establish this entity, has said: “First, I want to make the following statement. We are not vandals to demolish monuments!  The point is that the memorial monument on the site of the remains of the fortress in Adler, founded in 1837, was installed without the necessary approvals and permits. Moreover, information about this event was filed completely incorrectly, which caused just outrage in the entire Adyghe (Circassian) world. We proceed from the assumption that the remains of a 200-year-old fort are of archaeological and historical value. And this should be indicated. But the symbols and content of the monument, the meaning of the whole action should be unifying. The most amazing thing is that this is possible. I am sure that all peoples should follow this path.” [15]

Thus, it seems that clinging to the focus on the greatness of an evil and corrupt empire is in itself illogical and totally inhuman. Because the colonial wars against dozens of non-Russian and non-Slavic peoples and nations were subjected them to murder and extermination. The conquered nations in Europe and Asia were either colonized permanently or temporarily. Thus, the compulsive and forced annexation to this rogue empire was not a coincidence; but rather, it was the result of systematic obsessive planning and implementation.

An appeal was sent on July 2020, signed by 55 Circassian representatives in the RF, to the Russian President and local authorities in the Caucasus Region criticizing the phenomena of erecting memorials, which pressed on: “The monument to Russian soldiers who died in battle with the {enemy} highlanders, unveiled in the Adler region of Sochi, aroused indignation and protest from their descendants and many caring people in whom the memory of the victims of the bloody aggressive Russian-Caucasian war lives. As noted in the news dedicated to this event, {the initiative to create a memorial sign belongs to the deputies of the Sochi City Assembly, priests of the Holy Trinity Church, members of the military-historical society and staff of the museum of history of the Adler region}.” [16]

The response of the local authorities in Adler in July, 2020, near Sochi, to dismantle the monument that was recently erected, at the request of the public opinion is considered one of a kind. An open letter was sent by Circassians to the Russian authorities and says that “dismantling of the recently set up monument in Adler at the request of the public became an indicator that there are responsible officials in the Russian government who are ready to abandon the imperial policy of interethnic opposition, the policy of ‘divide and rule’ and even ‘clash peoples against each other.’” [17]



However, “if the Circassians are savoring a victory, Russian nationalists are outraged at what they see as a defeat that the powers that be and the Russian people as a whole should not tolerate but immediately seek to reverse ( and”

In July, 2020, Artemy Lebedev, another power structure mouthpiece, who gains profitable contracts for designing logos and advertisements. Also, he is prominent blogger, who embraced fascist ideology in 21st century Russia. Obviously, he was raised and brought up within a chauvinist segment of the Russians on radical and Apartheid concepts. He seems to be among hordes of so-called patriots with imperial and shameful racist philosophy. He interfered in an inappropriate, or even vulgar manner, in order to express his opinion via video, refusing to dismantle one of the memorials that commemorate the criminals and savage invasions. All this aggressive congenital decadence is directed at the members of a nation whose guilt was nothing but its inconsistent with a colonial fascist empire’s policies that had expansionist greeds at the expense of its neighbors. [18]

Apparently, to maintain the harmony of racism and superiority felt by the arrogant crowd who promotes sentiments against non-Russians, “Russian President Vladimir Putin awarded Russian designer and blogger Artemy Lebedev with the Medal of the Order of Merit for the Fatherland, II degree.” [19]

The lack of deterrent punishment by the law enforcement and lack of proper reaction towards the racist, Artemy Lebedev, has evidently, encouraged him to repeat his insults against the Circassians and their history. [20] Thus, in Nalchik, KBR, a Circassian man stabbed himself with a knife in protest for the racist action and remarks shown by Artemy Lebedev against the Circassians and their history. He also “asked for forgiveness from the muhajirs, saying that his act was the least that the Circassians could do.” [21]

“The toughest so far was adopted by Mikhail Leontiyev, a Russian television commentator who is also a vice president of Rosneft. In a diatribe on state television that many will see as reflecting what the Kremlin wants Russians to believe, the commentator lashed out at the decision and threatened the Circassian nation (”

The Rosneft vice president, whose officials are accused of corruption, who also occupies a media role, being one of the parrots of systemic propaganda has imposed his part of misinformation:

“We believe we are protected from all that black-white cretinism, these American monuments,” Leontyev said.  “But here in our home in the North Caucasus, in Sochi district, the monument, a new monument, which was erected recently to the heroes — soldiers of the Caucasus war. I don’t know if that idea was wise to begin with, because the Caucasus war was after all a domestic war, it was our own civil war, so to say, because there were people who fought against us, there were no Martians, no English, no German Nazi occupants, well, some foreign comrades tried to stretch their paws in there but via proxies.” [22]

“In the wake of the Circassians’ success in getting a memorial in Sochi to tsarist forces removed, Siberian Tatars have mobilized to Tobolsk to block the erection of one to another tsarist conqueror.” [23]

The typical stance of the Russian authorities is described as cynical, reckless, insensitive, and tainted by deliberate disrespect for the peoples that they are subjected to their authorities and local actors. As if they wanted the people to accept a voluntary slavery in a country that had adopted nothing but intimidation and bullying in its authoritative policies, regardless of Federation title that is eventually meaningless. The days and elapse of time showed that the decisions taken by the arms of the authorities are lacking the respect and marked with failure to fulfill the rights of oppressed peoples and nations. In addition, organizations and groups linked and related to the official exclusionary policy do not spare any effort to offend the natives  in various ways and means.

“In the West, the name Circassians is given to a widely dispersed nation of largely Diasporic people whom we find today not only throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa (Syria, Jordan, Turkey, Israel, Egypt, etc.) but also the Balkans, Western Europe, Canada, the US, Australia.

The overwhelming majority of Circassians live abroad, while in Russia there remains only the much smaller part of the people whose ancestors stayed in the defeated Caucasus. Circassian Diaspora in the world is linked through language, kinship, intermarriage, through transnational social, cultural and political organizations, but most importantly, through pan Circassian imagined community and homeland.” [24]

There are many indications that these reckless behaviors are carried out by a coalition of authorities, the Orthodox Church and extremist groups calling for the marginalization of others, who are all partners in the federation, not just the Circassians. “In the wake of the Circassians’ success in getting a memorial in Sochi to tsarist forces removed, Siberian Tatars have mobilized to Tobolsk to block the erection of one to another tsarist conqueror. In early June, the Rebirth of Tobolsk Foundation announced that it had raised enough money to erect a statue of AtamanYermak, the Cossack leader who conquered much of Siberia and the Russian Far East for the tsars and that the monument had the support of both church and state (” [25]

All the mentioned above, took place at the same time with bloody coups, uprisings, resistance, assassinations, slavery, hunger, disease outbreaks and feudalism in the Russian society. Eventually the Russian revolution of 1917 changed the entire regime. However, glorifying and praising an evil empire is still witnessed and perpetuated in the twenty-first century by the Russian chauvinists, who got daydreams of commemorating and rejoicing their past victories on the skulls of the oppressed peoples and nations.

Circassian Intellectuals’ Positive Role

There are unequivocally frank and truthful people, who got vision and enlightened foresight, who criticize snd deplore the moves and deeds of some authorities’ proxies and organs. They cooperate with radical allies in the Caucasus region concerning the tendency to antagonize emotions through building memorials, monuments, statues and memorial stones for obvious stubborn activities to promote for a clash of civilizations between the bullying intruders and the native dwellers.

The vigilant Circassians have managed to refute the allegations of those who falsify records and events, and work hard to spread disinformation, while fearing of documents or documentation through looking to escape from history.

In the same concept, attention has been drawn recently to the participation of some Circassian ladies in expressing their professional opinion on what is happening in the Circassian scene in their homeland. Exceptionally, they tend to mention the violations and attempts to falsify history that is occurring in full swing by some authorities’ organs parties that undertake their best to devote obsessive policies that ultimately aim to dwarfing the indigenous peoples and nations. They attempt to obliterate the facts related to the course of events and the occupation of the northwestern Caucasus and the brutal actions that followed for the sake of harming the entire Circassian nation.

Moreover, their constant trend is to glorify the role of the commanders of the invaders and occupiers who have killed, exterminated and deported hundreds of thousands of people and set up fire  in thousands of farms, grain stores, cattle and horse barns, villages and inhabitants’ settlements for the sake of subjugating their homeland at any cost. “During every military operation, they looted Circassian properties, including grain and food stores. The distribution of spoils to those who participated and supported the criminal and wicked acts proved of a pursued plan by the racist Russian state against people of the Caucasus.” [26]

In general, it is noticed that there is an unprecedented national renaissance, with which many intellectuals are part of it. However, on the other side, there are extraordinary efforts by the authorities to recruit some individuals to work according to dictated Russian policies. Therefore, the benefits gained from the Circassian efforts and activities had never been with this level of awareness and influence that led to shed light on the basic issues of the Circassian Question, both in the homeland and in diaspora.

“And among the Circassians, Madina Khakuasheva, a scholar and publicist in Kabardino-Balkaria ( and Madina Tlostanova, who teaches in Sweden ( have become intellectual leaders of the movement. Now, a third Circassian woman is gaining in prominence, Lyudmila Kochesokova, a Circassian lawyer and relative of embattled Martin Kochesokov who is slated to be tried August 11 on trumped up charges of drug possession and extremism. (On his current situation, see” [27]

Even when some peoples of the Caucasus have managed to temporarily regain freedom from Russian Empire’s colonization, other successive Russian authorities ascended to the top of the hierarchy of leadership with similar colonial ambitions. They qualified themselves to re-impose control over oppressed peoples and nations with iron and fire. One of the most horrible experiences that Circassians in Kabarda had dealt with, when they transacted with the Soviet regime. That occurred after the Soviet Union was able to extend its influence and control over all available Russian and non-Russian regions and territories.

“Khakuasheva says that the life of her late colleague, one that involved time in Stalin’s camps, various political repressions, and scholarly achievement ‘can serve as an example for the education of the younger generation’ and that Nadoyeva’s observations about the Russian destruction of Circassian culture remain fundamental to an understanding of that nation’s history.” It was eventually described as “‘unprecedented cruelty’ of Stalin’s regime and fully justify Nadoyeva’s conclusion that had Stalin done nothing else than that which he inflicted on the Circassians, the Soviet dictator should be found guilty of crimes against humanity.” [28]

  AdygPlus - Circassian blog

AdygPlus – Circassian blog

Some Diaspora Circassians have addressed the Circassian Tragedy issue. Cem Ozdemir, the deputy from the Greens Party has “said that the Circassians, his ancestors, suffered from the colonization policy of Russia.” he added: “this, according to him, cannot be hushed up.” [29]

The Eventual Protection of Human Rights from Abuse

Eventually,  it is imperative and closely related to the fact that peoples have a definite similarity in the human nature and reaction to crisis. Similarities to circumstances, contexts and meanings of human behavior are unavoidable. This confirms that impartiality in such cases and conditions are not acceptable when human dignity and behavior are taken into consideration. Facts show that people will not accept insult and/or humiliation of any kind. The people have the tendency to postpone taking the right decision to the appropriate time and place.

“Two of the key values that lie at the core of the idea of human rights are human dignity and equality. Human rights can be understood as defining those basic standards which are necessary for a life of dignity; and their universality is derived from the fact that in this respect, at least, all humans are equal. We should not, and cannot, discriminate between them.” [30]

Obviously, when Black Americans in the United States launched recently, a spontaneous campaign to demand taking down the statutes of the Confederate generals, it triggered similar demands in the Russian Federation, particularly, in the Circassian part of the North Caucasus to speak up for removing monuments built to commemorate the memory of the Russian generals who invaded the Caucasus and committed disgusting crimes. Where Black Americans “have achieved some success, and that has inspired other groups to go after monuments to other conquerors, including the Russian one of Alaska (” [31]

Uniting Efforts are Matched by Ingratitude and Denial

In a crucial concept, the Circassians concluded that they must follow an appropriate method for national salvation, to bypass all the obstacles and barriers that have been put in their way by the successive Russian regimes. As it seems, those interested in this issue have concluded that they must unite in their homeland under one name and use a unified language. Later on, it is possible to link and communicate with the Circassian Diaspora for the same goals. “The head of the Kabardin Congress in the KBR made this declaration as Circassians both in the North Caucasus homeland and in the diaspora are urging Adygs, Cherkess, Kabards, Shapsugs, and other nationalities the Soviets divided the Circassian nation to reassert their common identity in the census (” [32]

Caucasian Knot

Caucasian Knot

Circassians in their homeland did not hesitate to pursue the issue of unification in any field or method that could be followed in order to bring the parts of their fragmented nation closer together. Circassians have high hopes for the upcoming census that will be held  throughout the Russian Federation, which is going to be the next phase towards the future.

“Circassians living in Russia should register as a single people for the upcoming census, since they have a common language and one culture, said representatives of Circassian organizations in Kabardino-Balkaria Beslan Khagazhey and Aslan Beshtoev. The Circassians are territorially divided, and the absence of a single name does not allow them to be perceived as a single people, says philologist Madina Khakuasheva.” [33]

Various organizations, groups and individuals put their trust on working to spread awareness and inform fellow compatriots of a promising future if they select the choices that suit their nation. “‘In his appeal entitled’ One people – one name “Ali Aslanov addresses the Circassians living in the Russian Federation. He informs that by the decision of the government from April 1 to April 30, 2021, the All-Russian population census will be held … of all questions For the Circassians, three questions will be of great political importance: what languages ​​do you speak; your native language; your nationality,” [34]

On the other hand, the International Circassian Association (ICA) has not only made itself voluntarily a tool for further implementing Russian exclusionary policies, in the light of widespread rampant corruption in all walks of life; but a weapon against the very interests of its own Circassian members from various places around the world, whether in the Circassian homeland or in the diaspora. The ICA has cornered itself by its unwise President’s misguided and uncalculated role in following Russian projects that aim for the marginalization of the role of non-Russian nationalities. He went on the path of urging the change of some articles of the Russian constitution that were offensive to vulnerable nationalities. This approach eventually leads to degrading their distinct language and culture.

Waiving Homelands and Rights in Absentia

It is neither secret nor a stretch of imagination to say that the Russian Empire would not have committed its invasion, conquest and to perpetrate its crimes, which can be described as unforgivable foolery without the Ottoman fragility, which began since the Ottoman Empire became inflicted with weakness and emaciation, in the absence of those who were implicated by both greedy sides.

Europe before the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 /

Europe before the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 /

The Ottomans placed their empire in a situation in which the Russian state dictated what it wanted the Ottomans to do, who were acquiesced to sign the treaties of Kucuk Kinnarjah {July 1774} ( and Edirne {September 1829} (

In a vulnerable situation, the Russian state, out of colonial arrogance had dictated the Ottomans what to do. Thence, signing Kucuk Kinnarjah unequal treaty on July 1774, shows the extreme weakness of the Ottoman Empire. “Article 11 of the Treaty of Kuçuk Kainardji now allowed the right of merchant ships of both parties to navigate freely on the seas which washed the shores of both empires, and bestowed such privileges and advantages upon Russian subjects as were enjoyed by the most favoured nations in the Ottoman Empire. While the provision explicitly refers to ‘merchant’ ships, the ‘most-favoured-nation’ treatment granted the Russian navy the right to navigate freely on the Black Sea up to the Bosphorus, and in the Mediterranean Sea up to the Dardanelles.” [35]

THE TREATY OF ADRIANOPLE on September 1829 has proven beyond doubt that the Ottoman Empire did not hesitate to concede its sovereign rights and other peoples’ rights to the major active powers at the time, especially the Russian Empire. The following in addition to other crucial points were mentioned: “Adrianople treaty had become a great victory of Russian diplomacy. It prepared favorable conditions for the Black Sea trade and completed the annexation of major Transcaucasia territories to Russia.” [36]

The situation was characterized by negotiations and the signing of treaties between a victor and a vanquished, in the absence of the parties that have been implicated by the two negotiating sides aspiring to the homelands of others. That necessarily led to the impact on the Ottoman Empire’s sovereignty over its territories in general and Turkish lands in particular. Wars and disasters were brought to the peoples of the Caucasus in general and the Circassian people in particular.

The facts and consequences of the most crucial and dangerous treaties between the Russian and Ottoman empires prove the covert and overt dialogue and negotiations that were characterized as back and forth between the Russian and Ottoman greedy sides. Bearing in mind that Ottoman rants to give up the Circassian coast  on the Black Sea has no legal basis, because it was never part of Turkey or the Ottoman Empire.

“1. A counter party who alternates between conciliation and provocation. People are usually more provocative, or difficult to deal with, at the outset of a negotiation. Then they become more conciliatory as the outlines of a settlement develop. Beware the person who is conciliatory at first, then becomes provocative — and then when you’re about to walk away becomes conciliatory again, and then provocative again. This behavior suggests that he will never be satisfied, nor finished, with the negotiation. What he wants is not a negotiated settlement, but control — over the process and over you. The time and energy it will take to continue will eventually outweigh any potential gains you could achieve through negotiation.” [37]

Consequences of the above mentioned shadows and traces left negative results to the tragic scene. All of this occurred amid international silence, indifferent positions, and to be fair some of the shy protests have remained limited in their entirety from here and there. The displaced people narrated what happened to their nation and country at the hands of the invading forces who did not hesitate to annihilate this nation and thus control Circassia, especially its coast on the Black Sea.

Knowing that the Russian state has exerted its utmost to serve the colonial goals and pushed the owners of the land, the Circassian inhabitants, for their tragic destinies of homicide, genocide, ethnic cleansing and forced mass deportation. The victims of the colonial Russian invasion, were driven away from their historical whereabouts,  their original homeland either to the interior parts of the areas beyond  the Kuban River in the Northwestern Caucasus or to the Ottoman Empire, which on its part had welcomed the deportees.

The Ottomans even at certain occasions sent their ships to assist displacing them. Obviously, carried out with coordination and cooperation with the Russian predetermined plans and policies.

It was up to the Ottoman authorities, where to send the people who were described by various sources refugees. This reflected an opportunistic character, by recruiting those who were capable into the ranks of the military forces in wars and internal unrest in the Ottoman Empire. Furthermore, Circassians were transferred and settled in remote or difficult-to-control locations. They had to participate in the wars of the Ottoman Empire, sent to interior regions of Anatolia, to remote areas that authorities wanted to exercise effective control over them, such as Levant to guard and secure land pilgrimage routes to Macca.

Regretfully, the Circassians were accused by imprudent sources of exercising unjustified use of force, by committing brutality, without paying attention to the fact that official documents shows and proves that they were recruited into official Turkish-Ottoman militias and military forces, which were ordered to carry out formal and operational orders to execute some dirty operations that can be described as shameful and inhuman.


Where “Showing off is the fool’s idea of glory,” [38] continuous messages are sent and relayed to the victims and/or their descendants through random misleading directives. The colonialists present their image in contrast to their evil reality. They try to instill self-confidence in order to continue repressive methods against oppressed peoples and nations. All of this occurred amid international silence, indifferent positions.

The Russian Empire exercised its wicked capabilities to create a stunning tragedy for an entire nation. To serve the Russian colonial goals and ambitions, the owners of the land, who are the Circassian inhabitants, were exposed to their tragic destinies. The whole nation reached the verge of extermination. However, they had either to be murdered, displaced to inland locations beyond the Kuban River in the Caucasus region, or to be deported to the Ottoman Empire, which welcomed the displaced people. Even their ships occasionally helped to displace

them to Ottomans’ regions of choice, whether to participate in the wars of the Ottoman Empire, to the interior regions of Anatolia, or to remote areas that the Ottoman authorities desired to exercise effective control over them, such as parts of Levant.

All of this occurred amid international silence, indifferent positions, and to be fair some of the shy protests that have remained limited in their entirety from here and there. The displaced people have narrated what happened to their nation and country at the hands of the invading forces who did not hesitate to annihilate this nation and thus control Circassia, especially its coast on the Black Sea.

“As long as poverty, injustice and gross inequality persist in our world, none of us can truly rest.” — Nelson Mandela [39]



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[26] (Page 188, Circassia: Born to be Free, by: Adel Bashqawi)

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