The Circassian Miracle:

The Nation Neither Tsars, Nor Commissars, Nor Russia Could Stop

By: Adel Bashqawi

Book Summary *

Lessons of the Past to live the present and explore the challenges of the present and future prospects

March 2024

This book, “The Circassian Miracle: The Nation Neither Tsars, Nor Commissars, Nor Russia Could Stop,” book narrates the story of Circassia, a small European nation in the Northwestern Caucasus, located in Southeastern Europe. It explains how the Russian Empire invaded and occupied this nation, committed genocide, and caused displacement and deportation. As a result, most Circassians today (90%) live in diaspora, while only 10% live in their Circassian homeland, located in Southeastern Europe.

The book will attract people who are interested to be informed about many issues of the Circassian Question. This book elaborates on many national affairs, which are of concern to Circassians and non-Circassians, who are  interested in academic and human rights concepts that need to be tackled. It addresses how optimism and solidarity are needed to preserve the culture, heritage, language, and legitimate rights. People should not be driven to despair as it leads to loss of hope.

In light of what is happening in regard to Russia’s imperialist war against Ukraine, the methods of acquisition, occupation, expansion, and war of extermination are still dominant in light of what is happening in regard to Russia’s imperialist war against Ukraine, the methods of acquisition, occupation, expansion, and war of extermination are still dominant in standard operating procedures of the policy of successive Russian regimes. It is imperative to stop this invasion under these unprecedented conditions in modern times and in light of the Russian war against the Ukrainian state on Europe’s doorsteps.

The unfortunate crimes of murder, violent bombardment of cities and villages, extermination and displacement that have been committed since the aggression of February 2022 as a result of the senseless war require putting an end to this insane war. The Ukrainian defenders seem to be capable, resolute and determined to confront the aggressor forces and stop them by all available ways and means. There are indications that the Ukrainian forces were able to recapture many of the areas that were occupied by the invading forces.

This war, rightly, simulates the wars of the Russian state since its empire, Soviet Union and the present regime against dozens of peoples and nations. The Russian war against the Circassian nation that lasted for 101 years (1763 – 1864) was no exception. The Russian military forces committed murder, destruction, annihilation, ethnic cleansing and forced deportation, by utilizing all kinds of advanced and heavy weapons.

The following is a summary of the highlights of the book to explore its objectives:


Book Overview

— This book, “The Circassian Miracle: The Nation Neither Tsars, Nor Commissars, Nor Russia Could Stop,” serves as a narrator of a story of a true tragedy that has yet to be properly deciphered as it deserves. It is a sequence of a story that began in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and still need to solve all its elements and dimensions.

— Since the subjugation of their homeland, the Circassians were subjected to harsh conditions in all walks of life, which wasn’t easy to withstand and get through.

— This meant a military dictatorship, characterized by savage, direct military and security jurisdiction, and domination for the duration of both tyrant imperial and Soviet/Communist eras.

— From the beginning of the 1990s on, the general situation has been quite different concerning the circumstances that the Circassian affairs have been clutched to.

— After decades of being forgotten, the people of the Caucasus region and the world at large have started to become enlightened with information that was prevented and blocked from the public.

— Being a descendant of Circassian immigrants who were forcibly deported from their homeland to the Ottoman Empire, I felt that I was obliged to highlight an almost forgotten period in the history of my Circassian nation. I had to collect documented information and then publish and circulate it.

— Even the historians, specialists, and academicians were not in the picture of the pain, destiny, and suffering that the Circassian nation was inflicted with for decades, specifically since the occupation and deportation of 1864.



— “THIS WORK IS dedicated to Circassia, the historical homeland of the Circassians, who inspired and encouraged emerging generations to maintain the torch of freedom and to lead the way, despite all obstacles and attempts of exclusion that have been tested over the years.

— Furthermore, I am expressing my appreciation for the relentless and persistent, blessed efforts exerted along the way by my dear wife and beloved family so as to attain my accomplishments.”



— “Since I started writing this book, I was puzzled about its title, even though the title is centered on and meant to be about Circassia and what it means at the present time. Also, the chapters’ contents of the book, as per the index, should reflect a meaning to the title.

— Nevertheless, when I completed writing the book, which touches on prominent issues and subjects of the Circassian Question, my choices were shortened to several options, such as

–Circassian Destiny

–Circassian Disaster

–Circassian Catastrophe”

— Accordingly, the title of the Circassian Miracle was nominated and chosen, to have a special significance, which reflects a sublime meaning describing the survival of the Circassian nation despite all the adverse and harsh conditions.



— The following paragraph is mentioned in the conclusion:

– “The book you hold in your hand … is part of that renaissance, and it is also a detailed description of how the Circassian miracle is going to continue and why in the future—and not the distant future but within the coming decade—that blade of grass will break through and break up all the concrete piled on it.”



— It started by elaborating on a typical diaspora narrative on Circassian families, dispersed in the countries of the diaspora. “IN THE EARLY 1970s, two Circassian sisters in their mid-forties traveled with their children from Amman, Jordan, to the town of Reyhanli, Turkey, which is inhabited by an insignificant proportion of Circassians. They met by chance with members of their family who had been residing since the 1864 exodus in the Turkish town of Uzunyayla.

— Excerpts from the introduction:

– “Nothing in this life is more difficult or painful than a state of mandatory homelessness or displacement. In consequence, this leads most of the time to the dispersion and distribution of the same family members in different countries around the world.

– “Touching on the personal features of the Circassian character, it can be elaborated on contained qualities of individuals, which are reflected on what the people endure for themselves. “It is but too common for these free-born Circassians to say and do what comes uppermost when their passions are touched, and among themselves these outbreaks soon heal and are forgotten.”

– “Reaching the final stages of war, criminal operations stretched to annihilation, genocide, and the implementation of a scorched earth policy. Circassians who remained alive were deported from their homeland, either to places beyond the Kuban River or to the Ottoman Empire. The conclusion has proven that the travelers were offering some promises, or rather, reporting dubious news that proved over time that they were untrue, incorrect, or even had no credibility.”

– “The sequence of the Russian-Circassian War (1763–1864) had eventually led to disastrous consequences that destroyed an ancient nation with an honorable history. Russian archives have revealed information that is important evidence for the conviction of criminals and tyrants. Strong proof of the mass murder and war of genocide they waged in Circassia. The Russian documents that were written by penmanship technique indicated intransigence, which showed the extent of arrogance and indifference and evil acquisition of oppressed nations.”

– “The surprising thing is the way of a demand that 226 families be deported to Syria, suggesting that the Russians have even determined in their request what area they chose those Circassians to be deported to.”

– The following is characterizing the nature of the Sochi region before the construction operations that changed its natural features due to the preparations for the Sochi Olympic Games: “The nature of the northwestern Caucasus makes it easy to enjoy the different circumstances of the topography of the land and therefore the accompanying weather. “Ranging from subtropical zones along the coast to 10,000-foot mountain peaks in the interior, it houses thousands of species of plants, birds and mammals, some of which are globally threatened.”

– “Describing and narrating the different issues of the Circassian Question is no fiction. It is not characterizing the subject as if it’s out of the myths or tales from One Thousand and One Nights. Quite the contrary, the subject is related to the “flesh and blood” of an entire nation. Events and matters are linked and depend on truth, facts, and figures that emerged from painful facts of existence. The entire topic was overwhelmed by the denial of inherent natural rights of humanity.”

– “Our concern in this book is to follow a flow of news and events, from the time that witnessed the emergence and growth of imperialist dreams for the purpose of achieving acquisition and colonial goals until today. It was not easy upon the Circassians to bear all the pressure, murder, and destruction, but they eventually had to accept the fact, which is the “victor” the fact. All they had to do was to accept the status quo and look to the future with confidence. Perhaps that day would come when justice and rights would be restored.”


Travelers to Circassia That Have Imposed Their Presence and Effect

— The book touched on three famous foreign travelers who traveled to Circassia by ship in the nineteenth century, reached its shores. They wrote down their observations about the Circassian people, wrote and published their books in Europe in multiple languages.

— They described Circassians’ activities, social life, quality of life, culture and the Khabzah (etiquette) system that they follow as their civilized way of life.

— They talked about human and natural resources, as well as the elements of their economy in agriculture, trade, handicrafts, and others.

— Also, they described Circassia as the land of abundant goodness, rivers, mountains, and fertile agricultural plains.

— Three examples are published in the book:

– Travels in Circassia, Krim-Tartary, &C.: Including a Steam Voyage down the Danube, from Vienna to Constantinople, and round the Black Sea, in 1836. Published in 1838 by: Edmund Spencer.

– Journal of a Residence in Circassia during the Years 1837, 1838, and 1839. Published in 1840, by: James Stanislaus Bell / British merchant. The author described his views and comments when visiting Circassia, discussing realities about the type of life that distinguished the Circassians’ society. Bell elaborated on various parts of their communities in areas he had personally toured and visited.

– Three Voyages in the Black Sea to the Coast of Circassia. Published:  1837 by: Eduard Taitbout de Marigny (Jacques Victor) Born in Greece of French origin.


Lermontov’s Experience and Comments on Russia, Circassia, and the Caucasus

— Mikhail Lermontov’s star gained prominence in the mid-1830s, however he died at the age of twenty-seven.

— There is always something in his novels and works that is quoted about the peoples of the Caucasus in general or the Circassians in particular, either frankly or between the lines.

— Ethnic cleansing and annihilation were the name of the game and the joy of certain Cossack and Russian military forces along with Russian military commanders’ efforts of acquisition. It can’t be but by selecting and ensuing bullying and despotic methods to achieve evil deeds that denotes profound immorality. Construction of settlements and military installations was intensified at the time, in the northwest Caucasus front.

— Reflection of power manipulation was accomplished through constant military operations; but it was not so easy because of the courage, determination, and dedication of the indigenous people. For the sake of defending their homeland, they have done very well, where their heroic struggle can be described as unparalleled.

— Mikhail Lermontov’s book “A Hero of Our Time: An Important Evidence Edited by Louis Bagby” contained critical comments on Lermontov’s literature.

— Sergie Durylin elaborates on his reading of a particular part of the novel, tending to express key ideas. Its title is “The Caucasus and  Peoples of the Caucasus in Lermontov’s Novel. It was a complex period of time in which he lived. It was the period of the tyrannical Tsar Nicholas I, whose reign was a turbulent era when more than ninety percent of the population lived in conditions of poverty, Tsar Nicholas I’s tyrannical Greig was a troubled era when over ninety percent of the population was living in conditions of poverty, a large percentage of the peasant population was virtually enslaved, power, land, and wealth were amassed in very few hands, and the country had yet begun to recover from the trauma of the Decembrists revolt that occurred in 1825 on the first day of Tsar Nicholas I’s rule.”


The Reality of Circassian Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide

– The hard, bitter and undeniable fact is that the Circassians had their homeland invaded and occupied. Circassians were subjected to one of the most brutal genocides in the modern era, thus losing half of the population. The invaders completed their diabolical mission, destroying and burning what was in their way, committed ethnic cleansing and forced deportation. Thus bringing foreigners to replace the indigenous population with settlers because the Russian state wanted Circassia without its Circassian population.

– WHEN RECALLING OR reminding of the Circassian ethnic cleansing and genocide, it attracts our attention to be magnetized to the past so that we may draw lessons from the experience. “On April 14th 1864, Prince Mikhail met with the leaders of Circassia in Sochi and ordered them to leave the high mountains and settle in the plains. Those who refused were given an ultimatum to leave for the Ottoman lands within one month, or otherwise be considered prisoners of war. Covertly, the Russians pursued a policy of organized and systematic terror, where whole villages were pillaged and then burnt down to the ground, and thousands of people were massacred in cold blood”

– “The Massacre in History, edited by Mark Levene and Penny Roberts, mentions particular massacres that occurred in the world from the eleventh century. Chapter 7 of the book, titled “The Circassians: A Forgotten Genocide?” by Stephen D. Shenfield, illustrates details of the subject.”

– Facts and figures indicate the nature of the tragedies that befell the Circassian nation as a result of the Russian invasion.

– “Circassians who had stayed in the North Caucasus had to face the repercussions of repression and injustice that took place during the Soviet Union’s era. “Cover-ups that characterized the Soviet period were brought to the surface. The 1928 Bakhsan revolt against the arbitrary and ruinous policies of the time was brutally put down.”

— The Significance of the Russian-Circassian War

– Shauket Mufti, author of Heroes and Emperors, had mentioned the wars waged against the Circassians in particular and other nations of the Caucasus in general. Accordingly, he cited the referenced tsarist Russian colonial projects, accompanied by their military operations.

They could be described as acts of immoral and inhumane mass transgressions and crimes.

– “The Caucasian Wars are noted for severity and long duration, lasting not less than seventy years. They symbolize the Circassian defense of their liberty and homelands against an immense force which was much greater than theirs. These wars which the Circassians fought to defend their liberty, national dignity, and their homeland, were a means of material and political gain, whether achieved by right or not for the Russians. They did not refrain from restoring to any means and sacrificing inestimable casualties and losses.”

— Raids

– Circassian fighters were the strong defenders of their homeland against colonial expansionist ambitions. They achieved unprecedented success in a legendary steadfastness until the aggressors had managed, at a later stage, to complete their “sinister goals. Annihilation and deportation were committed against the entire nation.

– “Being united, ‘enabled them to defend their homelands for many years so that they could easily tire their enemies who, despite their immense numbers and quantities of equipment, could not fight effectively in mountains and gorges. Had the Circassians fought Russia openly and regularly, they would not have been able to oppose them for a single day, owing to the Caucasians limited numbers and resources compared with those of the enemy.’”

– What did the invaders expect from the Circassians to do when the inhabitants’ villages and settlements were destroyed and their people were murdered? Circassian defenders responded by attacking military positions and front lines. Legitimate targets of military units were targeted. The Circassians were able, through the raids they mastered, to attack the enemy forces lurking in their homeland and inflict sporadic losses on them, thus exhausting them and expelling them from some positions.

— Subjugation

– The imperialists’ plan to control the territories and to build military posts and settlements included bringing settlers to change the demographic character of the entire region. The plan was to surround the Circassian areas to weaken the resistance. Sieges were implemented, and, thus, sanctions were carried out to prevent citizens from enjoying farming their land and other natural resources.

– “They constructed more than fifty large and small fortresses to surround the Circassians and cut all their communications with the neighbouring territories. The forces with which they garrisoned the fortresses were composed of frontier infantry from “Tehernomora” or Black Sea Cossacks supplemented with contingents of the regular Russian Army. In all, they totaled above 70,000 men, and formed the right flank of the Russian Caucasian Army whose head-quarters were at Stavropol.”

— Kabarda Being a Palatable Victim

– Aggressor forces had utilized bullying techniques and chose the suitable means for each case separately, intending to eliminate resistance, resilience, and to vanquish the morale among the indigenous population. Defenders depended on the available elements to block the advance of the enemy. This would delay the enemy from achieving their ambitions.

– “The inhabitants of Great Kabardia and Little Kabardia showed great opposition to Russian aggrandizement in their homelands and resisted the Russians for a long time with all the military power they could muster. They were, however, subjugated after intensive battles. The Kabardians could not continue their resistance because their homeland had no natural strategic positions.”

— The Intended Genocide and Deportation

– A subtitle displayed: “Was It Genocide?” elaborates on questioning whether a genocide and ethnic cleansing were committed. The author compared what happened with the Circassians with other crimes and invasions committed by the Russian Empire against other peoples and nations. “My approach to this difficult question firstly involves examining the background of previous and concurrent Russian treatment of newly conquered peoples.”

– The author engaged in several interlacing and linking questions. “Had the Russian empire already perpetrated, or was perpetrating, genocide in other places, outside the Caucasus? Secondly, I consider the attitude of the nineteenth-century Russian political and military elite towards the Circassians. Had the possibility genocide been contemplated as a solution to the problem posed by the Circassians’ resistance to conquest? Or, to use the phrase made famous by Norman Cohn, was there ‘a warrant for genocide’? And thirdly, why was the decision taken in favor of deportation? What was the thinking of the Tsar and his advisers that underlay this decision? Does it appear likely that their real purpose was genocide?”

— The Poles Role

– Imperial Russian brutality has proven to be unrivaled, and they took advantage of it. All known peoples and nations had their occupied countries and territories plagued by the adopted imperial policies. Poland was not an exception to this but has been considered one of Russia’s colonies. The acquisition had harmed the national interests of its people, likewise other peoples and nations, including the peoples of the Caucasus.

– “The Poles bore the cruelty of their oppressors until 1830; when they could not bear no longer, they revolted. The Russians, however, did not hesitate to use the severest disciplinary measures against the mutineers and rebels. The result of that insurrection was that many Poles had to flee, leaving behind their possessions and belongings, and take refuge in other countries that would shelter and protect them from the cruelty of their pursuers.”

— Mass Deportation of Circassians to Turkey and Displacement as a Weapon to Fragment and Disperse the Nation—Frightening, Depressing, Profound

– Deporting Circassians from their homeland was witnessed by multiple methods. This was coordinated in conjunction with the Ottoman Empire to work to accommodate those the Russians wanted to get rid of. They wanted them to assist in settling and populating areas that the Turks wanted to strengthen control upon. Also, they wanted to take advantage of recruiting Circassian military expertise.

– The Ottomans were preoccupied and engaged in senseless wars that were taking place at the time. Turkish encouragement of Circassian immigration into Ottoman territories was one of the most important factors that facilitated the permanent Russian occupation of Caucasia. It was similar to what happened to the Tatars after the Russians had occupied their homeland in the Crimea.

— Forgotten Genocide

– History News Network published an article in March 2015, written by Walt Richmond titled, “Russia’s Forgotten Genocide.” It elaborated on the realities of the Russian war against the Kabardian part of Circassia. “The Circassians are a small ethnic group with very few relatives who had lived between the Crimean Peninsula and the central North Caucasus for about 4,000 years when the Russians invaded their homeland in the eighteenth century.

– The Kabardians, whose society was the most stable of all the Circassian tribes and who occupied the strategic central region of the north Caucasus, had been Russian allies for over two hundred years when they became the first victims. In 1763, Russia began their plan to conquer the region by building a fort in Kabardia, and war ensued. It remained a stalemate until 1805, when General Sergei Bulgakov blockaded plague-stricken Kabardia.”

— Consequences

– The repercussions of the extermination were clearly visible as crystal clear. The last subtitle “The End of the Circassians?” mentions in the end, “The catastrophe that befell the Circassians in the 1860s put their survival as a people at risk both inside the Russian Empire (and later the Soviet Union and its successor states) and in exile. The impact of the deportations on the different Circassian sub-groups varied widely.”

— Abandoning Alaska

– A related context reveals the merits  of selling the state of Alaska together with a total of fifty thousand indigenous people. The United States’ purchase deal with the Russian Empire was signed in 1867 for the price of $7.2 million! This desire was triggered when “the Crimean War broke out, and Britain, France, and Turkey stood against Russia. It became clear that Russia could neither supply nor defend Alaska—the sea routes were controlled by the allies’ ships. Even the prospect of mining gold dimmed. There was a fear that the British might block Alaska, and then Russia would be left with nothing.”

– The Russian Empire showed willingness to give up Alaska in exchange for controlling the North Caucasus and the Crimea. Apparently, the Russians wanted to spend $7.2 million for the purpose of establishing more colonies and settlements in the Circassian homeland. They wanted to encourage relocating new settlers, to refill the demographic gap and to hold the ground, after deporting the Circassians away from their homeland.


The Circassian Rights and Their Link to International Law

— THE CIRCASSIAN RIGHTS are not limited to just the right to return a fraction of the deported Circassians to their Motherland, located in the North Caucasus. It is far more comprehensive than that, as the multi-element case cannot allow the Circassians to be subjugated to conditions, moods, and promises with empty contents. If conducted on non seriousness and bad intention of those who promote and call for them, it would subsequently affect a collective genuine right of all members of the Circassian nation with no exception.

— “Russia should start reconciliation with the Circassians to remedy the situation in accordance with the relevant Universal Declaration of Human Rights,891 which include:

– Genocide recognition,

– Apology to the Circassian nation,

– Moral and material compensation,

– The right of return to homeland under international protection, and

– Self-determination.”

— Retrieving the rights of the Circassian nation is justified in the perspectives of international laws and norms. It has been since 1864, more than a century and a half, not decades, not years, not weeks, or days; but painful moments have taken root in the hearts and consciences of both grandfathers and grandchildren.

— The right of return to the homeland is a preserved right for any people who are expelled, deported, or taken out of their native land for any reason and at any time. They must be able to return to the original place, territory, or home in which they lived for an ordinary life. This right applies to every person, whether a man or a woman, as well as the descendants of them, no matter how many they are, their whereabouts, place of birth, or different conditions, including the political, social, and economic ones. The “right of return is an inalienable, and  emanates from the universally recognized International Law.” It is “guaranteed by articles of the Human Rights Charter…

— The Right of Return to the Homeland

– The Russian authorities made it very difficult for repatriation of the Circassians to their homeland, and “for dual citizenship, neither of which the Russian authorities seem inclined to grant. Most Circassians who have tried to return have fallen under the provisions of the 1991 Russian citizenship law which requires that they give up their previous citizenship, live in the country for five years before getting Russian citizenship, and know Russian, all of which limits the attractiveness of coming back. And their situation has deteriorated as a result of the adoption in 2003 of the Russian law on the legal status of foreign citizens living in the Russian Federation. That measure makes it even more difficult for Circassians from the diaspora to return.”

— Return during the Russian Empire Era

– A letter was sent on July 30, 1859, from the “Commander of Forces” to the “Head of the Mala Labinsk Line,” to mention the conditions to be imposed on those who are leaving to Turkey and rules enforced regarding the “expulsion of the subjugated mountaineers.” The basics laid contained the conditions needed to “leave for Turkey and not to immigrate,” while in such case, “their request must be denied,” after counting administrative rules enacted specifically for such descriptions, which seemed to be martial law issued by field commanders against an occupied people, to restrict the movement and personal liberty of people.

— Return during the Late Soviet/Russian Federation Era

– “In 1992, a Circassian from the Turkish diaspora went to the North Caucasus, where he stayed three years in Makhachkala, the capital city of Dagestan, and then went to Nalchik, the capital city of his native homeland, the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, to pursue his academic studies and to find a job in the cultural circles. He then moved to Karachay-Cherkessia to continue studying there. The main objective was to return to his homeland.”

— Mufti of Adygea Is Against Repatriates’ Participation in Religious Activity

– Unfortunately, discrimination by then Mufti of Adygea has been applied against returnees to their homeland and declared that “Adyga-repatriates should not be religion staff in Adygea and take post of imams. Nurbij Emizh, Mufti of Adygea and Krasnodar Territory stated to the Caucasian Knot correspondent,” and said in his words, “they are of different mentality.”

— Loss of Gained Benefits

– Acquired and accomplished rights since the establishment of the International Circassian Association in 1991, have proven to be wasted, where the subsequent events and developments have led to change and abolish all threads that have been approved by the administration and the founders of the association for the purpose of follow-up and treatment.


UNESCO’s Efforts to Protect World Heritage Sites in the Northwestern Caucasus

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

— In the wake of the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Northwestern Caucasus became an easy prey for the elites and those who control and dominate the Russian State. “The Western Caucasus, a wilderness area along the Black Sea shores in Russia’s Krasnodar region includes a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the most unique and diverse ecosystems in Europe.”

— The nature of the Northwestern Caucasus makes it easy to enjoy the different circumstances of the topography of the land and, therefore, the accompanying weather. “Ranging from subtropical zones along the coast to 10,000-foot mountain peaks in the interior, it houses thousands of species of plants, birds and mammals, some of which are globally threatened. It is also a popular summer vacation spot for Russians. This wilderness area allows everyone, regardless of wealth or social status, to access and enjoy nature.”

— Russia had determined, at a particular time and with premeditation, to provide Sochi to host the 2014 Winter Olympic Games as part of its plan aimed to address the tide of Circassian awareness and national renaissance. They are apparently energized to present themselves to the world in contrast to the silence of the past 150 years. They looked for changing the features of human heritage and natural areas and attacking the wildlife, not to mention the deletion and blurring of the Circassians’ identity of the region and try to show it as pure Russian, that it does not belong in any way to its regional surroundings.

— The Russian authorities and the IOC have left unanswered questions and unsolved issues regarding the controversial Sochi Olympic Games.

— “Sochi practically did not have necessary Olympic objects to host the Games. Importantly, it was decided to conduct the Games on the territory of Sochi National Park—a federal natural territory with special protection (Category II according to IUCN Protected Areas Categories System).”

— The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

— World Heritage Committee

– “The World Heritage Committee meets once a year, and consists of representatives from 21 of the States Parties to the Convention elected by their General Assembly. At its first session, the Committee adopted its Rules of Procedure of the World Heritage Committee.

– The Committee is responsible for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It has the final say on whether a property is inscribed on the World Heritage List. It examines reports on the state of conservation of inscribed properties and asks States Parties to take action when properties are not being properly managed. It also decides on the inscription or deletion of properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger.”

– Two samples are introduced to ensure continuous government manipulation and evading from international obligations:

* In the thirty-third session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee meeting in Sevilla, Spain, from June 22 to 30, 2009, where on the Western Caucasus, the committee urged “the State Party to resolve as soon as possible the issue of the legal protection regime for the property, delimitation of its buffer zones and regulations concerning buffer zones management; also it encouraged the State Party to increase control and patrolling of the property to discourage illegal activities within the property and to increase awareness-raising and the involvement of the local communities and stakeholders to ensure that appropriate legal protection is enforced.”

— What Really Happened on the Ground

– It is substantial to know that “Vadim Kozhin, business manager for the President of Russia, is personally involved in this building process, which will ensure transportation to “Lunar Clearing,” also illegally constructed on the territory of the Caucasian Nature Preserve.”

– “To insist on changing the region’s landmarks regardless of environmental, heritage, and historical significance shows how Russia insists to ignore international laws and norms, not to mention human rights and the duty of states to respect the ruled nations and people. All this has left unanswered questions and unsolved issues.

– The Moscow Times published an article titled “Planned Road to ‘Putin’s Ski Resort’ Worries UNESCO,” stating, “UNESCO and environmentalists are alarmed over a government plan to construct a paved road through a UNESCO World Heritage Site to an elite ski resort linked to (then) Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.”

– Business Insider published an article titled “Putin Will Build a Road to his favourite Ski Resort, Even If It Destroys a Heritage Site,” which stated, “UNESCO and environmentalists are up in arms over a plan to build a paved road through a world heritage site en route to one of Vladimir Putin’s favourite ski resorts. The Moscow Times reports that the road is set to pass through Western Caucasus, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Towards the end of the road is the Lunnaya Polyana ski resort, a favourite spot of Putin, who takes time out from government duties to enjoy the slopes.”

– Novaya Gazeta published an article written by Evgeny Titov titled “Nature Wouldn’t Stand the Olympic Impact,” which elaborated on choosing Sochi for constructing the Olympics venues: “The members of Ecological Watch for the North Caucasus, the International Social-Ecological Union and Sochi’s branch of the Russian Geographic Society have sent a letter to Vladimir Putin where they point out that 11 future Olympic facilities ‘are unacceptable in terms of ecology and do not meet the requirements by the Russian law.’ Ecologists are worried about negligence towards the status of the Caucasian Reserve, Sochi’s national park and Sochi’s wildlife preserve. The general plan of development implies construction of about ten automobile and railroad routes on those territories, also construction of two ports and reconstruction of the take-off and landing strip.”

Other Activities Ignoring UNESCO Protected Sites

– For the intention of continuing to ignore all the warnings and prospects, the Russian authorities hung on to typical Russian hostile attitudes toward the worries and concerns of the Circassian nation. “The Sochi circuit, located in the Black Sea resort of the same name, is the first purpose-built Formula One facility in Russia and hosted the country’s inaugural Grand Prix in October 2014, in the same year that the city also stages the Winter Olympics.”

– “The Black Sea resort of Sochi has risen to global prominence after having been awarded the 2014 Olympic Winter Games. Situated along 140 km of the coast (the longest city in Europe) and against the backdrop of the Caucasus Mountains, this resort, now commonly referred to as the “Russian Riviera”, has long been one of Russia’s most popular tourist destinations and a truly great sports city.”

– The FIFA advertisement continued to say, “The famous mountain resort, Krasnaya Polyana, is located 40 km from the seacoast. In Sochi one can go skiing in the morning and sailing or swimming in the afternoon on the same day. The undisturbed forests surrounding the city are a UNESCO World Heritage site.”

— Authorities’ Harassment of Workers and Specialists

– In early November 2011, a group of activists, including the members of the ‘Ecological Watch for Northern Caucasus,’ the ‘Yabloko’ Party, and the movement ‘Solidarity,’ conducted public ecological inspection of the state forest reserve territory, adjacent to the alleged summer cottage of Governor of the Krasnodar Territory Alexander Tkachov.

– As a result of performing their legal duties, the specialists, workers, and activists who monitor and protect the natural reserves and do their job to apply the terms and conditions of preserving the environment, by following up and stopping attempts, and deal with the violators were pursued and harassed by those who represent the official authorities and contractors.

– The harassment and assaults … reached journalists and human rights activists, who made efforts to protect the environmental and natural reserves issues’ activists. Human Rights Watch and Committee to Protect Journalists sent a letter on August 2, 2013, to the Candidates for International Olympic Committee Presidency. The letter said: “Both Human Rights Watch and the Committee to Protect Journalists are deeply concerned about serious human rights abuses linked to the organization of the 2014 Sochi Olympics.

— The Controversial Palace

– Regrettably, there was unwillingness to apply and enforce international laws and norms, not to mention human rights breaches and negligence to save their culture, heritage, natural forests, natural resources and to return to their homeland, to meet the legal obligation of the state, and to respect the peoples and nations as well as to notice the exorbitant financial cost to satisfy and comfort high-ranking officials both in the government and the church: “News reports surfaced last winter that a seaside ‘palace’ for Putin worth at least $350 million and a ‘Patriarch’s Dacha’ for the head of the Russian Orthodox Church were being constructed on the Black Sea coast near Novorossiisk.”


The Link between the Sochi Winter Olympic Games and the Circassian Question

— The IOC is morally obligated and, in accordance with observing human dignity, should have had reconsidered the decision of holding Olympic Games on the Circassians’ remains and graves; but the prohibitive action occurred, which is a diversion from the principles, ethics, and objectives of the Olympics, and apparently deliberate negligence and carelessness in collaboration with the so-called host-state, in clear contradiction and deviation from their own proclaimed constitutional rights toward an indigenous nation that suffered and is still on the way in restoring its basic confiscated human rights.

— “The conclusion of the World Wildlife Fund, Russia, “states in its opinion that preparation for the Olympics is not within any control, construction quality is low, environment has already been seriously damaged and damage will continue to occur, and NGOs are deprived of the right to participate in independent public control over constructions.”

— No doubt that there were some positive results of the Sochi Olympiad on the Circassian Question. While some Circassian groups in Russia announced that they would not officially oppose the Sochi Olympics, many in the diaspora adopted a more confrontational approach, and it is their movement that has turned the international spotlight on the games.

— 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games

– The Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast, two thousand years ago, are mentioned, while the Circassians as an indigenous people of the area are disregarded. With the spreading of the Internet, the process of counteracting to enforce forgetting has accelerated, resulting in an increased involvement of additional Circassian activists.

– Pravda published an article titled “Olympic Games in Sochi to Be Most Expensive in History.” The article started, “On December 10 Sochi Olympic construction was attended by distinguished guests—representatives of the International Olympic Committee and Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Kozak, who oversees the project. According to Kozak, 2010 can be considered the beginning of mass construction of Olympic facilities. The preliminary cost estimated for the Olympics in 2014 is 950 billion rubles.”

– It showed that selecting Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympic Games had an impact on circumstances with different dimensions, which is described in the article as “the most expensive in history.

— Circassians Worldwide Outraged for Holding the Olympiad in Sochi

– “Circassians and their friends around the world have intended to show their outrage and rejection to holding the Olympiad on a genocide soil that includes mass cemeteries and graves of Circassians and aimed to ascertain that this action doesn’t reflect the Olympic spirit as such.”

– The Circassians stood to mourn and condemn the sad event, which was adopted and supported by the Russian state, regardless of all ethical, historical, and environmental worries and concerns.

– Sochi was the last capital city of Circassia, being the last Circassian stronghold at the end of 101-year-long defensive war against the tsarist Russian invasion. The 2014 Winter Olympics coincided with the 150th anniversary of the end of the Russo-Circassian War, and the parade of victory by the victorious military forces reminds of the consequences of the war.

— Considering Internationalization of the Circassian Genocide

– The usual stubborn attitude conducted by the Russian State in regard to the Circassian Question and its pressing issues did not trigger human conscience and duty of recognizing the atrocities that led to tragedies and crimes committed against the Circassians within the vicinity of the Circassian harbor of Sochi.

– The ugly truth is mentioned in regard to building a monument for one of the wicked leaders. “Crimes were addressed. Some of those Russian military men have been etched into history, he noted. In Armavir, for example, there is a monument to a certain Zass, ‘who paid ten rubles to his soldiers for each head [of a Circassian] they cut off. This was done for years,’ and both Russians and Circassians deserve to know the truth.”

– Following and monitoring what is happening on the Circassian scene, as well as observing those who are trying to influence the path of various activities, confirms that there is no change or progress concerning human rights and other Circassian concerns, in addition to social and cultural activities.

— Moscow’s Effort to Debunk Circassian “Genocide” Backfires

– “Russian efforts to discredit Circassian arguments that that nation was subjected to an act of {genocide} by tsarist forces in 1864, in Sochi, have backfired on Moscow. Not only have Russian books and articles provided additional evidence that tsarist forces did carry out “genocide” against the Circassians, but they have offered new information as well on other acts of {genocide} by the Russians against the peoples of the North Caucasus over the last two centuries. And perhaps most important, they have called into question the highly restrictive definition of the crime of {genocide} that Joseph Stalin insisted upon at the end of World War II in an effort to prevent anyone from ever holding Russia or the Soviet Union accountable for these most horrific crimes.”

— Circassian Sochi

– Circassian activists have started a process of opposing the idea of holding such an important international event on the land of genocide. “As soon as Sochi was entered as a candidate for the 2014 Games, Circassians began expressing their dissatisfaction. Moscow seemed to be rubbing salt in the wound when a television chronicle of the ‘history’ of Sochi, broadcast just before the IOC announcement, failed to mention the Circassians. When President Vladimir Putin implied the original inhabitants of the Sochi area were Greeks in his acceptance speech, he unified the world Circassian community in a way unparalleled since the deportation.”

— 151 Years after May 21, 1864

– After the 151st commemoration of the Circassian Memorial Day on May 21, 2015, it still reminds of tragedies and difficulties the Circassian nation had tremendously suffered of, as a result of the atrocities and horrors inflicted on all Circassian facets of society, during the long Russian-Circassian War, which lasted for more than four generations, where it’s devastating results are still not yet tackled or properly recognized by Russia (as it has succeeded the previous regimes that ruled Russia, particularly the Russian Empire that is responsible for its own wrongdoings during the invasion of another nation), correspondingly in accordance with the international laws and norms for the purpose of determining the legal responsibility to restore rights to the beneficiaries of those whom their rights were and still violated and confiscated. Genocide and associated elements, plus forced displacement and its repercussions, should be resolved sooner or later.

— The Sochi Olympics and the Circassian Question

– “From the perspective of many Circassian actors, the Sochi Olympics are perceived either as a deliberate omission or as an act of enforced-forgetting. Notions of ‘hidden history’ or ‘suppressed history’ play an important role in the contemporary processes of redefining ‘Circassianness.’ The Circassian historical (as well as contemporary) presence in the region being ignored in the extensive Olympic material motivates and generates increased mobilization among the Circassians.”

– Approximately one month shy of the opening ceremony for the Sochi Olympic Games, Arda Inal-Ipa published a study on the International Alert Blog titled “The Sochi Olympics and the Circassian Question.” The study confirmed in its entirety that the Russian state had not yet shown any positive sign or willingness to agree with the Circassians on a settlement for the Circassian Question by saying, “Circassians are in order to understand why the International Olympic Committee (IOC)’s decision to hold the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi has been controversial in relation to the Circassian Question, it is necessary to understand some of the historical aspects and episodes from the Caucasian War.”

— Circassian Activists Suffer

– Dozens of Circassian activists were detained in Nalchik while they were protesting the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games. Andzor Akhokhov “was released after ten days of administrative arrest and stated that the police had tortured him.” He “told reporters that he was the organizer of the action and added that he was tortured by the police … ‘I was prepared for the beatings and that they would put bags over my head; but I was not ready for electrodes. At police station No. 6 I confessed to them everything that they wanted … But in fact I triggered no explosions. We just commemorated our ancestors,’ the edition named ‘’ quotes Andzor Akhokhov as saying.”

– The harsh police treatment was not used only against Circassians activists. “Witnesses describe how the process of detention was brutal. In particular, the Latvian Avis Krasovskis, who was filming the events with his video camera, was attacked by three policemen who took away his camera, threw him to the ground and then kicked him.”

— Sochi as Reference for Corruption and Greatness

The quantity, quality, and cost relationship should be considered as a feasibility concept. A project is judged by the quality of its final outcome, where some of the contractors and services vendors were interested to meet certain deadlines, regardless of the quality, and eventually not according to standard specifications and expectations. “In June 2010, Assistant Chairman of the Sochi Microregion Yury Reilyan stated that out of the USD39 billion that was expected to be spent on the Sochi Olympics, a large portion was being wasted on ‘ineffective techniques and corruption’: ‘we have huge outlays that accomplish nothing,’ Reilyan added, ‘and this is all corruption.’”


Author’s Published Views on Various Aspects of the Circassian Question

— From page 709 to page 1061

—As mentioned below, one of the recent topics that I included in the book is the conclusions of a scientific research that took place in Jordan on the “Genetic Code and DNA Verification” of Circassians and Chechens.

— Most of the views are author’s titles and subtitles of articles, which published after 2017

— The Impact of the 2020 Census on the Circassian Nation despite Russification

– Circassian Status Quo

– Circassians Role in the 2020 Russian Census

– Facing Difficulties Created by the Authorities

– North Caucasus Inmate Abuse

– The Legitimacy of Circassia as an Independent Entity

– Extinction Risk of Circassian Language and Culture

– Conclusion

— Circassian-Georgian Relations Trend

– Past

– Georgian Nart Sagas

– Recent Past

– Present

– Future prospects

– Conclusion

— Recent Commemoration Landmarks

— From Circassia to New Zealand

— The Fall of Empires

— Old Lucy Puffing Ashes

— Circassian Deportation in Light of Academic Disinformation

— The Caucasus Front and the De Facto Authorities

— Northwestern Caucasus and Western Circassia Front

— One-Way Trip

— Sochi Winter Olympics

— May 1864

— Forming the Short-Lived Caucasian Mountain States Republic

— Recent Information Released in 2018 from Moscow

— Cons of Relying on Others to Seek Restoring Circassian Rights

— Traits of Circassian Character

— Atrocities Affecting the Circassians

— Praising Tyranny and Inhuman Behavior

— Declaring Circassia a Republic

— Europe’s Moral Role to Restore the Circassians’ Legitimate Rights

– Russia’s Chronic Failure to Solve the Circassian Question

– The World and Europe’s Role

– The Question of Future Circassian Independence

– Crystalizing a Plan

– Human Rights and European Union’s Moral Obligation

– Indigenous Peoples’ Rights

– Arrogance Being the Genuine Impediment of Recognizing Legitimate Rights

– Human Rights Violations

– Conclusion

— Sochi 2018 FIFA World Cup—Humanity and Justice Are among Top Losers

— Impact of Excessive Cutting and Agricultural Pests in Sochi

— Intellectual Invasion Proxies


— The Right to Disagree and Selfishness to Marginalize Others

— Views on the Circassian Homeland

— The Last Year of the Circassian Wars for Independence

— Circassian National Movements

— International Circassian Unity

— Circassian Demands

— The Prolonged Circassian Suffering

– Factors Affecting Communication between Scattered Communities

– The Effect of Colonial Policies on the Relationship between Circassian Communities

– Unstable Russian Relations with the International Circassian Association

– The Contrast between Reality and Fiction

– Examples of Hostile Policies

– Circassian Identity

– The Circassians and IT

— Martin Kochesoko: A Circassian Hero

— Circassians and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

— Atrocities Affecting the Circassians Have No Limits

— Matching reality with the results and their implications

— Natural Right and Authoritarian Regimes

— UNESCO’s Efforts to Protect World Heritage Sites in the North Western Caucasus

— The Circassian Rights and their Link to International Law

– The Right of Self-Determination in the Bolshevik Revolution in the year 1917

– The Right to Self-determination

– The Circassians’ Language and Culture

— Eye of the Storm Manipulates the Russian Imperial Family

— Claiming Human and Legitimate Rights

— Circassia Being Part of the Caucasus Mosaic

– Pan-Caucasus Concept

– Language

– Attire

– Aftermath

— Importance of National Unity

— 2020 Russian Census in Light of Current Divisions

— Educational and Intellectual Data

— Genetic Code and DNA Verification

– One of the topics that I have included in the book is the conclusion of the scientific research that took place in Jordan on the “Genetic Code and DNA Verification” of Circassians and Chechens.

— Y-DNA: Paternal Lineage

– The book elaborated also on the “Y-DNA: Paternal Lineage,” which verifies the origin of the fathers side of the family.

— Research on Circassians and Chechens in Jordan

– Its worth mentioning and referring to a study that was performed in Jordan by Dr. Rana Dajani, who led a team of researchers from three Jordanian universities, the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics in collaboration with the Center of Genomics, University of Pennsylvania, and Children Hospital of Philadelphia in the USA.


The Russo-Circassian War Documents

The question remains—who gave them the right to invade and commit all types of hostilities against the Circassian nation?

– The firmness and legality of the “Circassian Question” is placed at the forefront of its priorities for the restoration of its legitimate rights. The injustice suffered by the nation did not make the Circassians lose their wisdom, tolerance, and hope. On the contrary, they clung to peaceful, nonviolent, and civilized options. They chose legal methods, persistence, consistency, and determination for restoring their legitimate rights. Also, they believe in what Muhammad Ali famously said, “He who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life.”

– The Circassians have proven (through their behavior and principles) their adopted responsibility, despite being stricken by the results of the Russian-Circassian War. They eventually followed a logical track. “Just like a river can go to the sea, you can go wherever you want. Just keep your focus on the goal.”

– The atrocities and horrors the Circassians faced (where their effects are still visible to this day) did not find their way to a logical and legal solution. Keep in mind the irrefutable evidence with eyewitness testimonies, official Russian documents, memorandums, and memoirs of leaders and officers of the Russian Empire, in addition to the physical evidence and effects of the destructive, as well as demographic, social, and economic factors.

— Evasion of Responsibility by Provoking Arbitrary Accusations

  • The Russian authorities believe if they name the small oppressed peoples and nations as their counterparts or opponents, that this would belittle Russia! Accordingly, they manage a strong propaganda machine beside the “fifth column,” to attack an imaginary enemy. This is orchestrated to distract attention from the core issues.
  • When the victims stand to restore their rights according to international laws and norms, the circuits close to the Russian authorities tend to claim the existence of imaginary enemies. Instead of considering the right issues and the unsolved problems, they issue reckless and unsubstantiated charges. Indiscriminate accusations tend to accuse certain parties of fueling the views of outstanding claims. Targeted parties such as the CIA, USA, the West, or enemies of Russia in order to satisfy their psychological egoism.

— Reality Speaks Louder

– The documents are characterized and categorized according to realistic classifications. They are also numbered in a way so that they may be easily accessed. The documents are given the same serial numbers in different languages. The Russian, English, and Arabic versions are also available to be accessed and retrieved.

– The Circassians have shown their honest purpose of maneuvering within a sensible and wise mind. Their ultimate goal is to understand and comprehend the details of the atrocities that have accumulated over the years; not for the sake of retaliating against anyone or any party, but to implement the legal proceedings in a peaceful and civilized way and, eventually, bury the hatchet once and for all.

– Correspondence between the Russian high command headquarters, staff, commanders, and generals shows harmony and coordination among all those involved with the war against Circassia. It involved messages, letters, and orders relaying standard operating procedures, tactics, policies, and strategies to implement their final objectives.

– Not all of the horrors and terrible acts were recorded in a similar manner throughout all the Circassian territories. This is just a fraction of a whole of documented occurrences that would narrate the whole story of the atrocities and consequences that accompanied the Russian-Circassian War. The events mentioned below prove what is still strongly denied by the Russian state.

– The question remains—what gave them the right to invade and commit all types of hostilities against the Circassian nation?

Russian Documents that prove the occurrence of the Circassian genocide

— Documents extracted from the Russian archives are numbered for easy reference from No. 1 to No. 421, which were translated from the Russian language.

— Book pages from 646 to page 1083.

— 437 Total Pages.



a. The Institutional Face of Collaboration: The International Circassian Association, by Haci Bayram Polat.

b. Claim for Recognition of Circassia as a State Being Occupied by Russia.

c. Charter of the United Nations.

d. Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

e. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

f. Self-Determination.

g. International Law and Justice.

h. Uphold International Law.

i. Key UN Documents Related to Decolonization.

j. Presentation of the Circassian Genocide Documents “Documented Evidence.

* This Summary Introduction is revised in March 2024

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