A Presentation for “Circassia and Ukraine: Two Nations Even Russian Genocide Can’t Destroy Presentation”

Circassia and Ukraine: Two Nations Even Russian Genocide Can’t Destroy

By: Adel Bashqawi

Book Summary *

Simulating the Past to Realize the Present

March 2024


• Based on the sudden disintegration of the Soviet Union in DEC 1991, and the emergence of fifteen independent states, one of which was post-Soviet Russia, I found it appropriate to address an important topic whose secrets I have been determined to explore, expose and delve into, specifically the topic of the Circassian Question and its different issues.

• An EYE-OPENING disastrous results appeared from Russia’s occupation and annex of the Crimea in February 2014, and the all-out attack in February 2022, which turned out to be a faltering war, have arisen the necessity of stopping Russian invasion and occupation projects against neighbors and beyond, and the inevitable emergence of independent states that may result from the unavoidable disintegration of the Russian colonial state.

• Accordingly, in the opinion of experienced observers, a heavy legacy will emerge that must be overcome. The staggering number of dozens of peoples and nations that the Russian state subjugated by force and included under its nominal federalism may create numerous obstacles and troubles to the future of the whole region.

The following is a summary of the highlights of the book to explore its objectives:


Circassia and Ukraine: Two Nations Even Russian Genocide Can’t Destroy

By: Adel Bashqawi


It gives me great pleasure to cast light on what was published in my book (Circassia and Ukraine: Two Nations Even Russian Genocide Can’t Destroy,) which was published in August 2023. The importance of this book lies in the fact that as a result of the tragic events that the Russian state caused through its invasion and attempt to occupy an independent, sovereign state, which is a member of the United Nations.

It has become clear that what is happening in Ukraine is similar to what happened with the Circassian nation and other peoples and nations neighboring the Russian state since the Tsarist era, through successive regimes, and until now. It was necessary to expose the Russian colonial state, and to recognize and realize that things could not be set right without taking into account all transgressions and helping peoples who had lost their rights, freedom, and independence to regain their legitimate rights.

This book deals with many related topics. It dealt with connecting the dots and putting the record straight. The book included the occurrences and events that the Circassian nation witnessed since its defensive war in the face of the brutal Russian war, occupation, genocide, ethnic cleansing, and forced displacement. The Circassian efforts aimed at explaining the consequences of the Circassian issue have been touched on. Reference was also made in parallel to the events that took place since the resounding Soviet fall in December 1991, and the independence of its fifteen republics, and all the important events related to Russian affairs, up to the crazy war in Ukraine.



                    Foreword………………………………………………………………………………………….   ix                

                    Preface………….…………………………………………………………………………………  xiii   

                     Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………xv

                     Chapter 1   Earth-Shattering Soviet Fall ………………………………………………  1

                     Chapter 2  The Circassians until the Sochi Winter Olympic Games,
                     February 2014………………………………………………………………………………….. 70

                     Chapter 3  The Occupation and Annexation of the Crimea 2014 …………… 98

                     Chapter 4  The Ukraine Invasion and Beyond / February 24, 2022 ………. 257

                     Chapter 5  Key Facts  ……………………………………………………………………….. 364



To the lovers of freedom, national dignity, and justice in Circassia and Ukraine



By: Karina Vamling, Professor of Caucasus Studies, co-director and cofounder of RUCARR (Russia, Ukraine, and the Caucasus Regional Research), Malmö University, Sweden.



One of the paragraphs:

“The title leads to the content. It elaborates on similar outcomes for crimes that occurred at different times. However, they were committed to the common denominator of inspiration emanating from the same colonial mentality. Grief-stricken peoples and nations know that the tip of the iceberg has been reached, in anticipation of the end of pain, torment, and oppression.”



One of the paragraphs:

“It is not a matter of offending anyone or just repeating narratives or describing flowery words, whether randomly or haphazardly. In the long run, no one will benefit from any uncalculated movement. Therefore, it is dealt with to clarify the scene and the broader image, which will give an objective idea with comprehensive and integrated fundamental concepts.”


Chapter 1 Earth-Shattering Soviet Fall   ………………………………… 1

— A Brief Overview

Based on recent adventures, the interrelationship between certain events that took place in Europe, the Russian state proves that it was and still is the main axis of the evil colonial policies and practices.

— World War I

• Circumstances forced the Russian Empire to be engaged in World War I as a major fighting power. “Russia entered the first world war with the largest army in the world, standing at 1,400,000 soldiers; when fully mobilized, the Russian army expanded to over 5,000,000 soldiers (though at the outset of the war, Russia could not arm all its soldiers, having a supply of 4.6 million rifles).
• Countries with common and similar interests joined together and concerted forces to line up together in order to utilize military force to achieve their interests in the first place. Also to achieve their goals of occupation, control, and influence, in contrast to the other side or alliance that seeks to achieve the same interests and benefits by using military force or any corresponding pressures such as psychological, economic, and others.

— Post–Russian Empire Peoples’ Rights

The emergence of the concept of the right to self-determination of colonized peoples and nations by the leaders of the initial change, which was later retracted. Governance in the Soviet era was characterized by tyranny and absolutism.

— The Soviet Union / 15 nominal republics:

1. Armenia
2. Azerbaijan
3. Belarus
4. Estonia
5. Georgia
6. Kazakhstan
7. Kyrgyzstan
8. Latvia
9. Lithuania
10. Moldova
11. Russia
12. Tajikistan
13. Turkmenistan
14. Ukraine
15. Uzbekistan

Ukraine from the Mid-Seventeenth Century until the Mid-Twentieth Century

• Ukraine, like other peoples and nations, was forced by circumstances to neighbor Russia against its will. As a result, Russia, under its various names and titles, has persevered in harming and undermining its freedom and independence by various means. Holodomor History (second paragraph), published by the Holodomor Museum website, stated that Ukraine did not have, at the time, its own statehood.
• Denial is always a way for the criminal or the perpetrator to escape responsibility, evade liability for the crimes that have been committed, and transfer them to other parties, even to accuse the victims themselves and their representatives of lying instead of the criminal or the party that committed heinous acts that fall under the jurisdiction of the law. the typical aim of a perpetrator is to evade the punishment imposed by international and domestic laws.

— Holodomor 1932 – 1933

Four integral components were identified in the genocidal process in Ukraine:

• The decimation of the Ukrainian national elites (political and cultural leaders),
• The destruction of the Ukrainian Autocephalous (independent) orthodox Church (its clergy and hierarchy),
• The starvation of the Ukrainian farming population (the Holodomor), and
• Its replacement with non-Ukrainians from the RSFSR and elsewhere.19

— World War II

“The war in Europe began on August 23, 1939, when the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed a pact that created a partnership between them in dividing up Poland and the rest of Eastern Europe. Under the terms of this pact, the German Wehrmacht moved into western Poland on September 1, 1939, and the Soviet Red Army moved en masse into eastern Poland sixteen days later. Great Britain, which had signed a bilateral defense treaty with Poland earlier that year, declared war against Germany as required by a secret protocol to the treaty.”

— Genocidal Massacres in Poland

This context shows the crimes of the Soviet totalitarian regime represented by committing genocide against the Poles in the defunct Soviet era in the years 1937–1938. In addition, the Katyn massacre in 1940 is in a recently declassified Soviet document written by the head of the NKVD, Nikolai Yezhov.

— Post–World War II / Nuremberg International Criminal Courts.

Following the end of World War II and the defeat of Nazi Germany by the military forces of the Allied powers, a breakdown occurred in the temporary alliance between the Soviet Union and other major countries of the alliance. Consequently, the Soviet Union in 1948 benefited from facts on the ground by installing communist regimes in the region that ended up being the communist Eastern European bloc.

— Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Disaster

“The April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators. It was a direct consequence of Cold War isolation and the resulting lack of any safety culture.”

— The Independence of the Baltic Republics

The independence of the three Baltic republics from the Soviet Union was an important event in the lives of these republics. this bold step was described as restoring the independence that was lost for decades when the Soviet forces occupied this vital and important region.

• Lithuania declared independence on March 11, 1990
• Latvia declared independence on May 4, 1990
• Estonia declared full independence on August 21, 1991
• On September 6, 1991, the Soviet government finally recognized the independence of all three Baltic states. It was followed by complete withdrawal of Russian troops from all Baltic states.

— The First Chechen War (Dec 11, 1994 – Aug 31, 1996)

The Russians were not satisfied with the encroachments and transgressions they committed against the peoples and nations of the Caucasus region during the imperial era and, after that, the Soviet period. Rather, the same approach continued to prove the irrefutable truth that the same methods and steadfastness were applied to the same racist and colonial policies. They made it clear in public and to anyone who had doubts about what was reported or said about the truth of their crimes in the bitter and painful past.

— The second Chechen War  (August 1999 to April 2009)

The main cause of the second Chechen war must be sought in particular features of the current Russian political scene. The first war was needed in order to reelect President Yeltsin. This war is needed to raise the standing in the polls of the current prime minister, Vladimir Putin, whom President Yeltsin has publicly endorsed as his chosen successor. For the Russian army, the war is attractive because it gives the generals an opportunity to take revenge for their defeats.

— The Fall of the Berlin Wall and the Collapse of Communism / November 9, 1989

• “The Soviet Union, which had always been ready to intervene militarily when the communist regime was threatened in one of its satellite states, this time refrained from acting. The effect of this turn of events cannot be underestimated. Poland was the first country to enter the minefield, and it survived! Poland’s “spring” in 1989 opened the way for the “autumn” of other nations the same year—a series of largely peaceful revolutions in the Eastern bloc that swept away the communist regimes.”
• This, in turn, sparked peaceful revolutions across Eastern Europe. When the Berlin Wall fell on November 9, 1989, the “velvet revolution” in Czechoslovakia overthrew that country’s Communist government. (In December, however, violence reigned: a firing squad executed Romania’s Communist dictator, Nicolae Ceaucescu, and his wife.)

— Thirty Years Later, Re-rising Walls and Obstacles

The interesting thing is that those who were against opening the borders in the past became pleased to keep them open with no restrictions. They considered them a source of nuisance and danger to the West in the present and future.

— Landing in the Red Square in the Public Opinion / “Mathias Rust, On May 28, 1987.”

A superpower covered with false facts and full of lies couldn’t prevent a single-engine Cessna – 172 plane from penetrating Soviet airspace in 1987. It was flown by a German teenager at the time and eventually landed in the Red Square next to the Kremlin. “Mathias Rust, just nineteen, had single-handedly flown more than 500 miles (750 km) through every Soviet defensive shield in a single-engine plane to land at the gates of the Kremlin.”

— The Fall of the Symbols of Communism and Socialism

No matter how much time passes, tyrants take turns in the chair of authoritarianism and responsibility. They tend to escape from reality. However, one day they will fall, the truth will prevail, and rights will be restored to their legitimate owners. “The most dramatic symbol of totalitarian tyranny, the Berlin Wall, fell dramatically. The Evil Empire, as Ronald Reagan memorably described the Soviet Union, was dissolving. the Soviet satellites were gone: Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Bulgaria all defenestrated their communist rulers.

— Signs of Collapse

The collapse occurred without the slightest resistance to this unique event of its kind. Undoubtedly, Gorbachev was an extraordinary person who was brought up and raised in the Soviet Communist era, being a member of the Soviet Communist Party, was promoted in 1985 as general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and eventually became a tool of its destruction.

The Reasons for the Soviet Union’s Disintegration:

1. Economic weakness.

2. Political unaccountability.

3. Gorbachev’s reforms.

4. Rise of nationalism.

— What Emerged Post the Dissolution of the Soviet Union

• Eurasia, one:
• Asia, 5:
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, tajikistan, turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
• The Caucasus, 3:
Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia
• Europe, 6:
Belorussia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, and Ukraine.

— The State’s Religious Background

• “Russian orthodox Church and KGB/FSB connection . . . was investigated. This connection was since the early ’90s, and without going into any detail, it can be said that from the early 1970s, a priest could only become a bishop with the blessing of the KGB, by being a KGB operative. Yes, that’s true!
• The present head of Russia’s Orthodox Church, “Kirill was very active as a KGB operative, traveling around the world meeting foreigners, spreading the gospel of the USSR as did the other members of the cloth . . . Back in the 1970s in London, I met a couple of these KGB agents/priests.”

— The Chechen Ambitions

Since the Chechens have demanded and even insisted on obtaining the right to self-determination that leads to freedom and independence, they have become serious about this right. they even showed interest in seeking the implementation of this objective in any way possible. However, Chechnya and its people became the subject of Russia’s targeting, which itself had emerged from the breakup of the Soviet Union. Accordingly, Chechnya and its people were subjected to two destructive, murderous, and exterminating wars.

— Restructuring the Intelligence FSB instead of KGB title

• At the beginning of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, one of the most prior and important heavy legacies, which were among the concerns of the influential and senior officials in the Soviet state, was intelligence and all relevant information. the main issue at the time was to reorganize the intelligence branches that had to replace all the activities of the Committee for State Security (KGB). It was eventually described as the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB) RF.
• At the time, Vlademir Putin headed the “Federal Security Service (FSB), formerly (1994–95) Federal Counter intelligence Service, Russian internal security and counterintelligence service, was created in 1994 as one of the successor agencies of the Soviet- era KGB.

—Signs of Authoritarianism

There have been many murders since President Vladimir Putin first came to power as prime minister, when he had previously joined the Kremlin staff. Immediately after the abdication of former president Boris Yeltsin, he proceeded to launch the second Chechen war. When a new presidential election was held, Vladimir Putin won it even though he was previously a middle-ranking KGB intelligence officer and had resided in East Germany for several years. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, he returned to Leningrad (St. Petersburg) and became an “adviser to the chairman of the Leningrad City Council. In 1991–94, Putin served as chairman of the foreign relations committee of the St. Petersburg mayor’s office.”

— Alexander Litvinenko’s Roll to Reveal the Hidden Truth

• Alexander Litvinenko, who co-authored the book Blowing Up Russia: The Secret Plot to Bring Back KGB Terror, has revealed shocking information that not many people know. “In 1998, he received an order from his superiors to kill the Russian Jewish oligarch Boris Berezovsky, who was a government official.”78
• He contacted Berezovsky, told him, and held a press conference to talk about it. He said that senior Russian intelligence (FSB) officers had given him illegal orders. “This was the end of Alexander’s career with the FSB. He was fired.”

— Casualties and Aftermath of the Second Chechen War (1999 – 2003)

“As many as 250,000 civilians were killed in the combined Chechen wars, along with many thousands more combatants on both sides. Reports of rape, arson, torture, and other crimes by Russian soldiers were widespread—and cast as a wholly necessary evil by those forces.”

— Prospects of the Chechen War

After the second Chechen war waged by Vladimir Putin, who held the position of prime minister at the time, began in December 1999 and ended in 2003, it resulted in the destruction of large parts of Chechen cities, towns, and villages, and the killing, extermination, and displacement of tens of thousands of Chechen people. Enlisting the support of most Western countries under the pretext of fighting terrorism—these relentless efforts were nothing but attempts to deceive and record positions that were, in their entirety, flattering to the West in general.

— The Murder of Ex-KGB/FSB (Lieutenant Colonel) Alexander Litvinenko (state sponsored poisoning)

• Following a press conference that Alexander Litvinenko held, he condemned the orders issued to him, which flouted the laws and regulations. He was put in the spotlight, not to mention being targeted by the authorities. He had the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the Federal Security Services and was released after being detained for nine months by the same intelligence services that he used to work for. He managed to escape unexpectedly without drawing attention to the FSB, although he was under the 24/7 watch of the Secret Services. He was fully convinced that he would not be safe from being re-arrested again at any moment and would face an insecure future.
• He eventually managed to travel with his family to the United Kingdom, where they demanded asylum, which turned out to be Litvinenko’s inevitable fate, albeit after a while.

— On Deathbed and Burial

• “The spy, who had fled Russia for London, dictated a widely trumpeted statement just before his death. He fingered Putin. ‘[You may succeed in silencing me, but that silence comes at a price],’ Alexander Litvinenko said. ‘the howl of protest from around the world will reverberate, Mr. Putin, in your ears for the rest of your life.’”
• Litvinenko’s father, Valter, told RFE/RL’s Russian Service his son converted to Islam shortly before his death and wished to be buried according to Muslim tradition.
• The head of the Chechen government in exile, Mr. A. Zakayev, witnessed Litvinenko’s conversion to Islam on deathbed. He also wanted to be buried according to Islamic tradition, and that afterward he would like his body to be taken for reburial in the Caucasus, in Chechnya.

— Court Decision

• Alexander Litvinenko was poisoned on November 1, 2006. He died three weeks later in a British hospital.
• “Nearly a decade later, in January of 2016, a British judicial inquiry announced its findings. the judge in the case, Robert owen, said that the murder of the former FSB lieutenant colonel was ‘probably approved’ by Russian president Putin and by the director of the intelligence service, Nikolai Patrushev . . . the findings of the British inquiry were also backed by the European Court of Human Rights, which said it believed the Russian state to be behind the murder.”

— Journalists and Human Rights Activists (Dozens of Russian journalists were killed or disappeared since the 10990’s)

— Anna Politkovskaya (1958–2006). She “used to investigate rapes, beatings, and murders committed by the Russian military in Chechnya.”

• In February 2001, while investigating rapes, beatings, and murders committed by the Russian military in the village of Khatuni, Anna Politkovskaya (1958–2006) was arrested and held for three days by the Russian military, allegedly because her press credentials were not in order. During that time, she reported that Russian soldiers threatened to shoot her, rape her, and harm her children.
• On October 7, 2006, Politkovskaya was fatally shot in the stairwell of her apartment building in central Moscow. Police said a pistol and four shell casings were found beside her body, reports indicated a contract killing. Six people were suspected of involvement in the case. None of them have been brought to justice.

— The Doubtful Persistent Suicide/Homicide in Russia

“Death, which one remains confused about because of illogical interpretations and explanations, increases the ambiguity of the situation and does not provide a satisfactory or logical answer to all these incidents. Knowing that the information will be provided by the police or the judiciary indicates suspicion, doubt, and a lack of confidence in the official reports issued after such incidents.”

— Russian Oligarchs Falling Out and Collapsing Gradually

“It is not possible to describe what is happening with regard to the alleged systematic and continuous murder and/or suicide in the corridors of the elite or the upper class in Russian society, which is close to the ruling authorities, specifically the Kremlin and its master, who is considered the only leader that no one can deviate from obeying.”

— Russo-Georgian War 2008

“In August 2008, “Russian troops went on the offensive in South Ossetia and pressed on beyond its boundaries toward Gori, a town in central Georgia. they also head south of the Abkhazian-Georgian frontier in the west, while the Russian Black Sea sets up a maritime cordon blocking access to the Georgian coast, including the coast of Poti.”

— The Russian Fingerprints in the Syrian War

“Russian military operations in Syria since 2015, have assisted the regime to survive the “civil war, which took many by surprise and raised questions about the potential for similar actions in other conflicts outside of post-Soviet Eurasia … They examined four smaller-scale interventions in conflicts outside of Russia’s immediate neighborhood: Libya, Yemen, Afghanistan, and Syria itself before 2015.”


Chapter 2 The Circassians until the Sochi Winter Olympic Games, February 2014 ……………… 70

The Importance of Using the Title

– This chapter’s title is used because it represented a significant turning point. As you know, February 7, 2014, has coincided with holding the Sochi Winter Olympic Games. Being a commemorative milestone, which has both positive and negative aspects. The positive part is the contemporary Circassian national activism that managed to highlight the repercussions of the Russian-Circassian War that ended in 1864. Thus stimulated diaspora Circassians in their whereabouts to hold demonstrations in front of the Russian embassies and consulates.

– Circassians shed light on their noble Cause, which turned out to be the opposite of what the Russian euphoria intended to prove.

Many non-Circassian journalists, scholars and writers, who were interested in the topic, have published what was related to this Russian provocation, in a precedent that had never happened before, in multiple languages.

– Documented information related to the Circassian nation and what Sochi meant to them, was published and conveyed through media and social me.

– Even Circassian activists in Nalchik, KBR held a meaningful demonstration in a convoy of cars. They raised Circassian flags and a black banner appeared showing that Sochi is the “Land of the Circassian Genocide.”


The Circassian nation was not the only one that was subjected to invasion, killing, destruction, extermination, and displacement; there were dozens of other peoples and nations in the Caucasus and beyond that had been subjected to occupation and annexation since the era of the Russian Empire to the present day. Some of them will be addressed when pointing out the events that affected the public scene at a given time, especially in the Caucasus.

— The Treaty of Paris and the Conspiring States

— Guarding and Sweeping Responsibilities Following the Second War

• In the aftermath of the first (Dec 1994 – Aug 1996) and second (August 1999 – April  2009) Chechen wars, tens of thousands of innocent Chechens were killed, injured or displaced. Systematic scorched earth policy, including burning and destruction, were conducted by the Russian invading armed forces against the Chechen people and their homeland.
• Most of the cities, towns, and settlements were destroyed, which appeared as a  result of a devastating earthquake.
• Apparently,  a Russian loyalist was ready to guard Russian achievements, remove the rubble, and then build the cities again, leading to the conclusion that all traces of the war of genocide that was waged were removed by Chechen hands.
• Thus, granting Russia’s acquittal of murder, destruction, and extermination.

— Deputation of a Local Leader (the negative effects of the second Chechen war).

• Thence, the Russian authorities did not find any way out to get rid of the negative effects of the second Chechen war, except to seek the help of those from Chechnya who were ready to work with the Russians who reoccupied their homeland, according to the description of the “advocates of independence.”
• Surprisingly, the one who was willing to help perform this work in 1999 was the mufti of the Republic of Chechnya, who was appointed during the presidency of the late president Aslan Maskhadov, who was elected as president of independent Chechnya.

— Unparalleled Feud with Georgia

• In August 2008, the Russians launched an invasion against Georgia, beyond diplomatic efforts and humanitarian aid, the international community did little to stop the conflict.
•This was a time in which no one really wanted to provoke Russia. [Dmitry] Medvedev was president, and particularly American policy was to essentially hope that this could be leveraged into something more positive. Eventually, Georgia was left on its own.
• After a five-day conflict, the war ended with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, representing the EU, intervened and concluded negotiations that led to a ceasefire agreement on August 12, in which Russian forces had to withdraw from the Georgian territories they were occupied at the beginning of the conflict.

— Chechen Public Relations (They even reached a Hollywood level of publicity).

In 2013, creative functions were highlighted in a professional project. It was desired to obtain marks and signs of self-esteem and thus record and appreciate the admiration of the superiors for what has been achieved in order to implement the policy that was set for this purpose, whether audio or visual effects were utilized. they even reached a Hollywood level of publicity. these activities were held to praise the government of Chechnya, which is loyal to the Kremlin, and therefore its president.

— The Other Path is a Government in Exile

• On the other hand, it must be noted that the process of independence stalled because of the two bloody and devastating wars that came upon everything, as well as the allegiances and orientations of some personalities that change their skin from time to time. However, the vast majority of them remained steadfast in their principles, and nothing deterred them from their ultimate goal of freedom and independence. the losses were particularly costly.
• Great leaders (may God have mercy on them) such as Dzhokhar Dudayev, Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev, and Aslan Maskhadov, were lost because of assassinations that took place in different places. It is not uncommon for the Russian authorities to follow former president Zalamkhan Yandarbiyev to assassinate him in the Qatari capital, Doha, when he was on his way to perform prayers in the mosque, at the hands of Russian secret service agents who were sent to Qatar especially to assassinate him.

– Dzhokhar Dudayev
– Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev
– Aslan Maskhadov
– Abdul Halim-Salomovich Sadulayev
– Doku Umarov

• In 2007, new rebel commander Doku Umarov declared himself head of a proposed Islamist state spanning the Russian North Caucasus and described Western countries as enemies of all Muslims. Mr. Zakayev resisted the development, appointing himself prime minister of the Chechen government in exile. He called the radicalization of the rebel movement a ‘tragedy.’

— The Undesirable Criticism Outcome

Journalists and human rights activists are hunted down wherever they go. Rather, they may be subjected to abuse or assassination even when they return to their homes. In most of the assassinations that take place, the investigation ends with the conclusion that either they did not find the perpetrator of the crime or the criminal is a member of a criminal organization and the reason for its commission is not known. the assassination of the famous Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya, after publishing her 2002 book with the title Putin’s Russia, took place in light of her opposition to war policies in Chechnya and the authorities’ uncivilized dealings with citizens, journalists, and human rights activists.

— The Yearly Time Magazine Assessment

• In December 2007, “Time magazine named Russian president Vladimir Putin its Person of the Year for 2007, saying he had returned his country from chaos to ‘the table of world power’ though at a cost to democratic principles. Putin, a former KGB official, was picked from relative obscurity to be prime minister in 1999 by then-President Boris Yeltsin.”
• The Time magazine Person of the Year assessment was a step that can only be considered disgusting and outrageous. that encourages the concerned person to carry on and resume the mission he has started for days to come.

— Sochi Winter Olympic Games

• The 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics were nothing but an event that enshrined a fait accompli that created the conditions for presenting it in a ceremonial manner that hides many facts and crimes committed against the Circassian nation in the recent past. The Olympic facilities were built in the northwest Caucasus region, which is nothing but an area that was a natural reserve protected by UNESCo.
• The importance stems from the Sochi region being the last Circassian site or garrison defending the capital of the Circassian nation after a bloody war that lasted for 101 years, when the forces of the Russian Empire invaded Circassia. The Russian forces were nothing but occupation forces that committed murder, extermination, ethnic cleansing, and forced displacement that included the vast majority of the population.

— Just an Opinion

• Although “Biden looked at Putin and saw no soul,” George Bush: “I found him to be very straightforward and trustworthy.”
• Late Senator John McCain said in September 2008: “I looked in Mr. Putin’s eyes and I saw three letters—a K, a G and a B.”

— The Moscow State Institute of International Relations Organized Anti-Circassian Propaganda before the Sochi Olympics

• A video was published by the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMo) of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in March of 2010, at the time when the first Circassian Conference was held in Tbilisi.
• In short, the first part contains ideas that have nothing behind them but a deliberate campaign of lies and gossip and rhetoric filled with subversive propaganda, hatred, and misinformation. The irrationality made them have their primary concern at the time, agitating against everyone who opposes the Sochi Winter olympics, to the extent of saying that “this is the land of the Circassians, the Abkhaz, and Russians. they should not allow the Circassians to do this, and the Abkhazians should help the Russians in spreading this propaganda. Specifically, a theory has been proposed that Krasnaya Polyana is an Abkhazian rather than a Circassian land and that this should be promoted in the world, including among the diaspora, by using cultural centers with a common Adygha-Abkhaz component for this purpose.”

— The Present-Time Genocide Recognition

• Among the most disastrous elements of the Circassian question is the Circassian genocide issue, which has emerged as one of the repercussions of the Russian-Circassian War. It includes but is not limited to murder, destruction, occupation, annihilation, ethnic cleansing, and forced displacement.

• When the Soviet Union disintegrated, it became possible to access never-before-viewed Russian archives, documents, history books, memoirs, testimonies, notes, and information since 1864 and preserve them until the specialists were able to view them and inform the public of the unspeakable cruelty and crimes.

— The Necessity of Holding the Sochi Winter Olympic Games in 2014

• It is necessary to point out and focus on the policies of the Russian Federation and its imperial policies. It spares no effort in order to show the Russian state in a distinct manner from others, even if it appears to be a country that subjugates dozens of peoples and nations to its colonial rule. It was determined to hold the 2014 Winter olympic Games in a region that was not qualified to hold such games. The Sochi region includes the World Heritage Site in the North Caucasus, which is considered a protected area according to UNESCO.
• The expectations built on the Winter olympics in Sochi by the Russian president did not match the predicted results.
• Russian president Vladimir Putin hoped to win the world’s respect with his staging of the Winter Olympics. But a ruler who does not respect his own people will never be truly respected. One day after the olympics ended, Mr. Putin showed, with the sentencing of eight protesters in Moscow, that he fears his people more than he respects them.
• “Selecting Sochi for the Winter Olympics was not an ordinary matter for Circassians. In addition to political, infrastructural, and ecological problems, there are also ethnic and historical issues centering on the reaction of the Circassian community to the selection of Sochi as the Olympic host city. Sochi was one of the departure points for the Circassian deportation of 1864, an event that many Circassians and many scholars consider genocide. Furthermore, the Olympics will take place on the one-hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of the deportation, and Krasnaya Polyana (Red Meadow), the location of many Olympic events, is precisely where the Russians held their victory celebration. Circassian activists saw this as an attempt by the Russian government to erase the memory of their people and the genocide.”


Chapter 3 The Occupation and Annexation of the Crimea 2014  ………  98

It is ironic that the Russian state lies to the world about its irresponsible and wrong-footed adventures against its neighbors by crossing the international borders adjacent to its own borders through military campaigns carried out by the Russian armed forces and its affiliated reckless groups to attack, occupy, and/or annex lands and territories to the dozens of its sprawling colonies across its territories extending between Asia and Europe.

— Ukraine Timeline since the Nineteenth Century to the Nineties of the Twentieth Century.

— Cons of Reckless Adventures

While at the same time, Russia rants and brags that it wants to preserve the rights and privacy of those who live in Ukraine, who are Ukrainian citizens.

— Shooting Down a Commercial Airliner

In July 2014, a Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 (flight MH17), flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, was hit by a Russian-made Buk surface-to-air missile over eastern Ukraine while flying at 33,000 feet.

Four Elements of a Crime:

– Criminal act.
– Criminal intent.
– Concurrence.
– Causation.

— Growing Russian Ambitions in the Ukrainian Territories

“Annexation of Crimea and areas in eastern Ukraine’s Donbas region in 2014 and then, in February this year, to the invasion of Ukraine.”

— The Crisis in the Crimea and Eastern Ukraine 2014

— Wagner Group Intervention

— Reckless Projects Continue in Circassia

“Even the 10 percent who stayed in their homeland were not able to live together in one unified geographical area.”

— “April 25, Day of the Circassian Flag, a Dedication to the Homeland.”

— The Circassian Flag History and Adoption Stages

— Flag Commemoration

• “The flag was designed, produced, and then unanimously approved by the representatives of the Circassian tribes in the Valley of Psevaba in 1836, during which Circassian national unity was declared.”
• The Republic of Adygeya adopted the Circassian flag to be the republic’s national flag on March 23, 1992.
• “Since 2010, when the International Circassian Association first initiated the holiday, April 25 has been celebrated annually as Circassian Flag Day by Circassians living in more than fifty countries, including Russia.”

— Thank You, Jamestown

In April 2020, “the declaration of the Prosecutor General’s Office of the Russian Federation on considering Jamestown Foundation an {undesirable} organization.”

— Inglorious Individuals

“Don’t Forget to remember me”

— E40 Waterway

• Russia’s dissatisfaction with the rapprochement that could have brought Ukraine, Belarus, and Poland closer and would have developed cooperation by establishing the E40 waterway linking the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea, where millions of tons of goods could be transported between these countries, which could have imposed semi-isolation on Russia.
• In December 2019, Ukrainian and Belarusian officials signed a broader agreement about the E40 project. And at that time, they, along with Poland, began to search for the $20 billion in investments that will be needed to complete the entire route.

— Commemoration of Paul Henze and Kamal Karpat

In May 2020, a commemoration was held for the unique “Circassians: Past, Present, and Future” conference that was held in May 2007. It was with the participation of the Jamestown Foundation and the Circassian Cultural Institute, in which a distinguished group of participants had participated, especially the late Paul Henze and Kemal Karpat.

— The Thoughts of the President of the ICA

In an audio/video interview that was conducted in June 2020 by the Caucasus Journal with Mr. Hauti Sokhrokov, the president of the International Circassian Association (ICA), he confirms the emergence of an explicit contradiction in his words. What the president of the association aims for is to show stubbornness in directing this so-called Circassian institution to reverse the principles for which it was founded.

— A Politicized Statement in an Academic Template

• The politicized and directed academic media, which publish what is issued by authors and universities affiliated with official bodies, are considered the mouthpieces for the framers of Russian state policy. Academic-oriented media showed that actions speak louder than words. Also, facts speak for themselves, where attempts are launched to confuse the realities and deny the documented facts.
• Regrettably, lofty humanitarian principles are either scorned or ignored. The author’s point of view is spoken and portrayed by illustrating “the military actions in the northwestern Caucasus of the nineteenth century in Russian, Turkish, and Western historiography.”

— Statement of Solidarity with Belarusian Freedom Seekers

• “On August 16, 2020, the Circassian activism trend proved that it leans toward peoples’ freedom and independence by respecting and not compromising human rights.”

— Circassian Women Assuming Prominent Duties

Female members of communities are assuming an ever more prominent and public role in national movements there, especially among the Ingush and Circassians.

— Justice and Fairness for Martin (2020)

— Russia Considers the North Caucasus Republics as Colonies

Valery Khatazhukov, the Circassian head of the Human Rights Protection Center in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, rectifies the situation by saying that “the reason for this change was not the second post-Soviet Chechen war but rather the Kremlin’s decision to treat Chechnya and the other republics as colonies and test repressive measures there before using them elsewhere.”

— In the Footsteps of Sykes-Picot Agreement Consequences / When the Student Outshines the Master

• On November 20, 2020, an overview mentioned the Sykes-Picot Agreement signed in 1916, between France and Britain with the approval of two false witnesses representing both the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy. The agreement aimed to divide territories, which were an “integral part of the ottoman Empire,” between the two main signatories.
• The agreement was articulated in the absence of peoples and nations concerned.
• Later on in Russia, as a result of the Bolshevik / October Revolution shuffled the cards and scattered the plans.
• Soviet Russia has adopted even worse plans than this.

— The Russian Colonial Concept in the Caucasus

— The Circassian Examples

— North Caucasus

— South Caucasus

— Future Prospects

— Treaty of Adrianople between a Crumbling Empire and a Grasping One

— Confidential Meetings and Treaties Küçük Kaynarca

— Adrianople

— The Circassian Tragedy Squeaked Through Constant Brutal Methods

— An Open Letter to the Russian Opposition Leader, Alexei Navalny

— Circassians Denounce Putin’s Palace Built on Circassian Land

— Appeal to Navalny May Boost Russian Attention

—Attempts to Restore the Faded Glories of an Empire

The passage of time has not changed the domineering colonial mindset since the era of adopting the policy of expansion, conquest, and despotism of the Russian Empire. The change of successive regimes has proven that their colonial mentality has never changed, while successive generations adopted and still embrace ideas, principles, and rituals that are contrary to democratic basics and the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

— Circassian Intellectuals’ Positive Role

• Madina Khakuasheva, a scholar and publicist in Kabardino-Balkaria
• Madina tlostanova, who teaches in the university Sweden
• Lyudmila Kochesokova, a Circassian lawyer in KBR

— The Eventual Protection of Human Rights from Abuse

— Uniting Efforts Are Matched by Ingratitude and Denial

In a crucial concept, the Circassians concluded that they must follow an appropriate method for national salvation to bypass all the obstacles and barriers that have been put in their way by successive Russian regimes.

— Waiving Homelands and Rights in Absentia

It is neither a secret nor a stretch of the imagination to say that the Russian Empire would not have committed its invasion, conquest, and crimes, which can only be described as unforgivable foolery, without the ottoman fragility, which began since the ottoman Empire became afflicted with weakness and emaciation, in the absence of those who were implicated by both greedy sides.

— Circassian Forced Deportation

— The Circassian Displacement

— Back off on the Promise of Self-Determination

The October Revolution and the Soviet Union eventually showed their true colors and followed a policy of hypocrisy. “The Declaration of the Rights of the People of Russia, proclaimed one month after the October Revolution on November 21, 1917, recognized four major principles:

1. Equality and sovereignty of the peoples of the Russian Empire;
2. The right of nations to self-determination;
3. Abolition of all privileges based on nationality or religion;
4. Freedom and cultural development for national minorities (i.e., dispersed nationalities and those living outside their historic territories).”

— Expulsions According to the European Court of Human Rights

International Law and the European Court of Human Rights have addressed types of collective measures taken by any invading or occupying power that affect individuals and groups of a people or nation in order to force them by various ways and means to leave their homeland that they inherited from their ancestors.

— On the Day of Commemoration of Genocide, Circassians Seek Restoring Their Forgotten Rights

— The Tenth Anniversary of Circassian Genocide Recognition

• Diaspora and Caucasus Issues Committee.
• The Human Rights and Civil Integration Committee.
• Education, Science, and Culture Committee.
• Legal Issues Committee.

— A Realistic Reading of the KAFFED Strategy (1/5)

— Ignoring the Truth and Deviating from Reality (2/5)

— Consequences of the April 2020 Russian Constitutional Referendum (3/5)

— Necessity to Demand Recognition of Circassian Legitimate Rights (4/5)

— Contrasting Activities (5/5)

— To Remind of the Proposals of the Jordan Association of Caucasus — Circassian Friends Regarding the Reform of the International Circassian Association

— Political Exploitation of the Circassian Question

— Circassia Is Proud of Its People

— Between Truth and Polemics

— A Lie May Take Care of the Present, But It Has No Future

— Attempts to Circumvent Circassians’ Identity and Culture

— The Circassians in Diaspora and the Right of Return: An Achievable Goal

— The Circassian Question Still Unresolved

— The Reality of Russian Maneuvers

— Response to the Farce of Voluntary Accession

— The Russian Flag Reflects Tsarist Characteristics

— Banning Russia from Participating and Raising its Flag in International Sports Events


Chapter 4 The Ukraine Invasion and Beyond / February 24, 2022   …    257

Information selected to be in this part of the book comprises material that is necessary to show. It is necessarily what has links or ties to what happened and is happening since the start of the open and exposed Russian invasion of the Ukrainian territories. The aggressor Russian forces crossed the Ukrainian territory in violation of the recognized international borders, with no consideration for territorial sovereignty, the charter of the United Nations, or the known international laws and norms.

— The Impact of the Raging War in Ukraine

— Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine

— The Impressive Position of the Ukrainian President

— Wise People Must Stop this War Going on in Ukraine

— Occupation and Forced Subjugation Scenario

— Eating with Wolves, Crying with Shepherd

What mitigates the impact of this devastating catastrophe is that it resulted in the solidarity and concerted efforts of dozens of European countries and others with the Ukrainian people.

— Circassia

What is happening in Ukraine at the present time should not distract attention or concern from another important and relatively similar issue, which is the Circassian question, which remained where things ended on May 21, 1864, in terms of not finding a suitable solution that would restore the Circassian legitimate rights. It must be confirmed that Circassia did not find a trusty and devoted friend who could stand by its side, even though the Russo-Circassian war lasted for 101 years.

— The Killing and Destruction Continue in Ukraine

— Reneging on the Promises and Memorandums of Understanding

Memorandum on security assurances in connection with Ukraine’s accession to the treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Signed in Budapest on December 5, 1994, by:
• The Russian Federation
• Ukraine
• The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
• The United States of America

— Russia’s Hybrid War Simulates the Colonial Past

— It’s Time for the Civilized World to Grasp the Lesson

— The Colonial Stubbornness Stuck in the Ukrainian Swamp

— The Captive Nations of the Caucasus

— Tendentious Orders and Instructions

Since the Circassians are part of this world and they became close to the peoples of the diaspora countries to which they immigrated and were brought up, resided, and nurtured, they had no choice but to deal with dozens of peoples, languages, and cultures, and many times the obligation to sympathize with them. It is not an exaggeration to find someone who takes the issues of others as his own and works for them throughout his life, whatever the cost. On the other hand, the Circassian cause and the demand to restore legitimate rights are forgotten.

— The Role of the Non-Neutral Russian Orthodox Church

— From Extermination to Gas Ovens and Everything in Between

— Unhindered Hate Speech

Furnaces are designed to accommodate cremation chambers for the disposal of the bodies of the victims. That requires ultrahigh temperatures that can reach up to 1,000 degrees Celsius. Ultimately, the separation of the parts and particles of the material that make up the corpses requires high heat to break down the body into small fragments of the ash of bones and flesh. This heat is generally produced by a source of heat that might be gas or other petroleum derivatives.

— Utilizing Unconventional Means

— World War II Gas Ovens and the Current Gas Mobile Crematorium

— Inevitable Liability

Knowing the nature of the Russian state exposes an important aspect of colonial policy and brutal behavior, which lends a positive epistemological character. This would not have been revealed had it not been for the latest invasion of Ukraine.

— Ignoring the Charter of the United Nations

— The First Step to the Current War

The Crimean Peninsula was occupied and annexed to Russia in early 2014.547 Besides, some pro-Russian groups were encouraged to ignite an armed conflict in the southeastern part of the internationally recognized Ukrainian territories, apparently in preparation to declare two separatist breakaway regions of Ukraine, called Luhansk and Donetsk republics.

— International Circassian Association (ICA) and Legitimate Rights

— In Solidarity with the Circassians in Nalchik

“On May 21st this year, local Russian authorities will not allow the annual traditional commemoration and mourning day events at Freedom Square in Nalchik.

“Nor will the procession of the Circassian march accompanied by purebred horses be permitted. This year, the Circassians in Kabardino-Balkaria will not be allowed to commemorate the Circassian Genocide Remembrance Day the way they have in recent years, even though all participants usually observe the Circassian Khabzeh and dress appropriately for a memorable event, remembering their roots and origins.

— The Circassian Memorial Day, Loyalty Day to Circassia

— Circassian Memorial Day While Violating Ukraine’s Territorial Integrity

This part was prepared in May 2022, for the online Conference of the Circassian Cultural Center in Tbilisi, Georgia, on commemorating the Memory of the Circassian Genocide Day.

— Circassian Rights Are Counterbalanced by Falsehood of Denial

An article caught my attention with the title “Neither Communism nor Colonialism,” which stated in its introduction: “The types of colonies were researched when the colonists felt that they could not treat the conquered countries the same.” It touched on colonial conquests in different historical eras, from Alexander the Great to the modern era. He says, “the Charter of Nations after the First World War was based on the nullification of colonialism, respect for the right to self-determination, where the concept of self- determination is that independence means a natural right for every nation that governs itself or is governed by others.

— A Brief Overview of the Circassians under the Current Circumstances

The invasion of the Russian Empire through the Russo-Circassian War was the longest, fiercest, and worst of all, spanning over 101 years from 1763 to 1864, which led to occupation, genocide, ethnic cleansing, and deportation but turned out to be all but forgotten in the absence of the civilized world. The Circassian nation is now scattered in dozens of countries, while unremitting efforts are being made to restore its legitimate rights.

— Colonial Countries Utilize the Oppressed Nations as Firewood for Their Adventures

— Russian Officials and Oligarchs Who Died Since the Russian Invasion of Ukraine

Approximately, 40 prominent Russian figures have died since the beginning of the invasion of Ukraine in 2022, such as oligarchs, generals, scientists and others. The circumstances surrounding their deaths are mentioned.

— Wagner Boss Prigozin Dies In Plane Crash (Thu August 24, 2023)

— The Right to Freedom and Self-Determination

— Meeting of the Committee on Foreign Relations

— Perspectives on the Circassian Identity

Dependency and indifference, as well as a lack of interest in the national issue, will necessarily lead in the medium and long term to the loss of the Circassian national identity. Failure to take proper action at the appropriate time leads to tyrants and their supporters stewing in their own juice.

— The Russian Policy Continues Without Hesitation to Undermine the Foundations of the Circassian Identity

Since the early times of the invasion and occupation of Circassia, the Russian state has been tirelessly implementing its infernal and exclusionary plans, secretly and openly, through the central and regional authorities represented by their security arms and agents. This comes in the context of undermining the foundations of the Circassian identity, as the ruling system did not hesitate to do what it could in order to establish the tragic fait accompli, eliminate the nation and its identity, and consolidate the status quo according to a systematic Russian colonial plan that ultimately aimed to eliminate the remaining symbols of the Circassian identity and civilization. The identity is represented by language, culture, customs, traditions, arts, etc., which in their entirety express the authentic identity that emanated from the Circassian homeland.

— False Census Results for Homeland Circassians

— Self-Imposed Obstacles

The war that Russia imposed on itself and its people, and thus created economic hardships and international sanctions imposed on it cannot be avoided or passed unnoticed, along with the huge losses incurred as a result. The restrictions imposed on the export and sales of oil and gas, as well as stopping dealing with most Russian banks in monetary operations, money transfer, and investment affected the decline in the price of the Russian ruble, whether at the international level or in Russia itself. All this created a state of great despair and a deficit in the Russian trade balance, which led to the deterioration of the Russian economy.

— Difficulties Faced by Compatriots

One of the disturbing and even haunting topics is what bothers the Circassians residing in the Circassian homeland. Individuals and institutions are subject to exposure to Russian tyrannical and repressive measures, whether by local authorities or the so-called federal government, directly affiliated with agencies that have an immediate link to the authorities in Moscow, such as the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB).

— Defending Legitimate Rights

The importance stems from the urgency of protecting human rights, regardless of narcissistic interests. Therefore, such a trend must include all peoples and nations, who sometimes appear to be excluded from reality and/or participation, where the developments continue to ignore the need to take their inalienable rights in the present and future more seriously.

— Clinging to a Kuban Mirage

— Grigory Zass and Wagner: A Common Factor of Racist Adventures and Colonial Ambitions

“It takes one to know one,” “like two peas in a pod,” and “it takes two to tango” are relatable imagery and idiomatic models for a common context of a common factor. It combines what happened of crimes committed by the Russian Empire military forces in the nineteenth century at the instructions of the Russian commanders, generals and officers during the invasion of Circassia, and what is happening nowadays in the twenty-first century at the hands of the Russian invasion military forces, specifically the Wagner group fighters.

— Ukraine’s Plans to Restore the Occupied Land

The Ukrainians gave the Russian occupiers an unequivocal choice between restoring the occupied Ukrainian lands through peace or war. They stand firmly in order to liberate the occupied Ukrainian lands, especially to restore the usurped territories and resources, in the face of barbaric invasion, occupation, genocide, and illegal annexation.


Chapter 5 Key Facts   ………………………………………………………..   364

— The Difference between Russian Colonialism and Imperialism

It is realistic to record observations related to the reality of imperialism and colonialism imposed by the Russian Empire on the Circassian nation and other peoples and nations in the Caucasus and beyond, and what the current Russian state has tried and is still about to do to invade, occupy, and possibly annex the independent state of Ukraine or parts of it.

— The difference between the two words is vast if we want to give each description its due meaning

1. Colonialism is a term where a country conquers and rules over other regions. Imperialism means creating an empire, expanding into the neighboring regions, and expanding its dominance far.
2. In colonialism, one can see a great movement of people to the new territory and living as permanent settlers. Imperialism is just exercising power over the conquered regions either through sovereignty or indirect mechanisms of control.”

— The Tragedy Suffered by the Circassians

— A Journey to the Motherland

— Speech of the Former President of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Valery Kukov, on the 130th Commemoration of the End of the Russo-Caucasian War (1994)

— Circassian Problematics after 2007

• There is no doubt anymore after uncovering confirmed information that the Circassian nation was and is still subjected to one of the most heinous crimes of genocide in human history.
• In 2007, the majority of the Circassians in communities in their homeland and in the diaspora declared their disapproval, indignation, and condemnation for the fake celebration of the Russian state through fascist methods on a false occasion. Anger was overwhelming, bubbling up emotions. this annexation, which didn’t take place willingly, was described as “450 years of the Circassians’ voluntary association with Russia.”

— Attempts of Challenges

Investigating and monitoring international covenants and conventions related to human rights is one of the advantages people enjoy, which are considered their prerogatives. Facts and events confirm that peoples and nations will be victorious and will cling to their legitimate rights to eventually get rid of tyrants and oppressors. Circassians are obliged not to help those who occupied and subjugated their homeland in any way. Therefore, there is a tendency among many Circassians not to participate in Russia’s efforts to recruit youth to fight with the Russian military forces in the invasion of Ukraine. They are simply the descendants of those who killed, exterminated, and displaced hundreds of thousands of their ancestors during the Russian-Circassian war that ended on May 21, 1864.

— Amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation

On March 18, 2020, the following open appeal was sent on behalf of the author and other Circassians, addressed to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, regarding amendments to the constitution of the Russian Federation about “the state language of the Russian Federation throughout its territory is the Russian language as the language of the state-forming nation, which is part of the multinational union of equal nations of the Russian Federation.” That will dwarf other national languages

— Repatriation According to International Law and Supervision

— Commemorating the Circassian Tragedy

— Democide, the Highest Degree of Extermination

Democide as the highest degree, fourth in the sequence of brutality and annihilation, which applies to what the Circassians had to suffer, as per the following:
• “Genocide: among other things, the killing of people by a government because of their indelible group membership (race, ethnicity, religion, language)
• Politicide: the murder of any person or people by a government because of their politics or for political purposes
• Mass murder: the indiscriminate killing of any person or people by a government
• Democide: the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder.

— Between Empire’s Consul and Federation’s Ambassador, Russian Propaganda Against Circassians Never Missed an Opportunity

Examples have repeatedly proven the extent of intense Russian interests in spreading misleading information and false propaganda against the Circassian nation and its eligibility for freedom and dignity since the outbreak of the Russian-Circassian War in 1763 until now.

— Diplomatic Impudence

“It is reported that the late Said Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt, was one day talking of the Circassians, and that the Russian consul who was present would not lose the opportunity to make the observation, {If a man steals a horse or a cow, we call him a tcherkess}. Said Pasha replied, ‘Yes, and if he seizes a whole province, then he is called a tsar.”

— Tsarist Simulation in the Twenty-First Century

(In February 2020, Alexei Erkhov, the Russian Ambassador to Ankara, has distorted history with his words about the voluntary resettlement of Circassians to Turkey during the Russian-Circassian War, described by Russia as the Caucasian War, as Circassian activists assert)

— The Effect of Repeated Abuse on the Ground

The two patterns mentioned above click with what a senior researcher in KBR has pointed out: Russia’s “falsification of the history of the Circassians and its disavowal of the imperial nature of Russian policy that led to the expulsion of most of the members of that nation not only shows that the Russian government is committed to a neocolonial agenda but is continuing its course of ethnocide.”

** Deception can be addressed by referring to the following quote: “You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.”

— Effect of the Plebiscite of the Russian Federation’s Constitutional Amendments on Circassians

• On Thursday, June 25, 2020, plebiscite on the amendments to the Russian constitution was held. What matters in this prospect is the impact on Circassian rights as a result of the proposed amendments, and an expert told the BBC, when asked about his opinion, that there will be no surprises in the results as they are known in advance, based on previous experiences.
• It is neither reasonable nor acceptable for people to be driven according to the whims of those who are complicit to melt into a crucible that loses its basic components, which consist of national identity, language, culture, and other important elements of the national character that cannot be ignored.

— Living Conscious Countries

It is not possible to expect actions from the authorities of the Russian state other than what they really are, and what we see before our eyes at all times proves beyond any doubt that this is an intensification of the policy of bullying, possession, and exclusion. All of this is nothing but a continuation of colonial measures that ultimately aim at linguistic, cultural, and ethnic Russification, thus working on melting and merging in a colonial crucible that leads to the maze of the loss of national identity of the Circassian nation, stripped of its homeland, history, and traditions.

— Every Vessel, Including Exudes / Another Indecent Media Mouthpiece

• Artemy Lebedev, another power-structure mouthpiece, is known to be close to the power structures in Russia because of what he gains from the most profitable contracts for the creation of logos and advertising. He is also considered a famous blogger who has adopted fascist ideology, as he seems to belong to a generation of people raised with excessive patriotism.
• He only seems to be in the rabble, using his favorite qualifications on a video that contains a mixture of swearing and blundering mob-handedness that represent extreme nationalism.
• He utilized rude and abusive verbal ranting that contained profanity and impoliteness.

— Artemy Lebedev Awarded a Medal by Putin

Less than a month after this scandal, Russian president Vladimir Putin awarded the medal of the order “For Services to the Fatherland” to Lebedev (August 29, 2020). Circassian activists promptly launched a petition to recall the state award. The authors of the address also noted that the policy of glorifying tsarist generals who killed many people in the Caucasus comes from Putin himself.

— A Closer Look at Circassia

– Who are the Circassians?
– The Evolution of Naming Circassians
– The Russian-Circassian War
– The Circassian Independence
– Circassian Genocide, One of the Main Massacres in History
– Falsification of History
– Post-Deportation

— The So-Called 450-Year Association with Russia (in 2007)

— 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games

— Ambassador to Ankara Rants about Well-Known Russian Policy

— Basic Human Requirements

— The fate of Mariupol

One of the main concerns and most important priorities of the invading troops was to occupy the major cities that are important ports and harbors on the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

— A New Iron Curtain in the Loom

— Duplicate, Flimsy, and Trivial Reasons

The method of arbitrarily casting accusations haphazardly against the victims of successive Russian regimes has not changed against neighboring peoples and nations since Ivan the terrible to the present day. Motives and reasons given by the Russian Federation when launching its brutal and comprehensive war in February 2022 against the independent country of Ukraine and its people are consistent with the proverb “An excuse is uglier than a sin,” and they are considered flimsy, intolerable, and unacceptable.

— List of War Crimes:

• Willful killing;
• Torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments;
• Willfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health;
• Extensive destruction or appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly;
• Compelling a prisoner of war or other protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile power;
• Willfully depriving a prisoner of war or other protected person of the rights of a fair and regular trial;
• Unlawful deportation or transfer;
• Unlawful confinement;
•  Taking hostages.

— Ukraine Pursues the Right to Self-Determination of Peoples

Among the most prominent of these Ukrainian actions was a video appeal by Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky calling on all non-Russians of the Russian Federation to refuse to serve in the Russian army now fighting in Ukraine and to fight instead against Russian imperialism and for the rights of their own peoples.

— Recognizing the Independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria

(In that regard, in October 2022, the members of the Ukrainian Parliament unanimously adopted: “We declare the recognition of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.”)

— Adygha Khabzeh and Beyond

— The ultimate ethics and high morals / Shocking Information

• In the context of research on the extent of the spread of the Adygha Khabzeh to find out who applies and adheres to it, or got similar codes of ethics and behavior of the society, for non-Circassians from other peoples of the Caucasus, an electronic bulletin was found, issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Abkhazia in four languages.
• In the culture section of the aforementioned electronic bulletin, the Circassian Adygha Khabza as such is not mentioned or recognized. Rather, an Abkhaz traditional code of ethics was addressed. The core part of the Abkhaz culture is a traditional ethic code, apsuara, literally meaning “abkhazship.”

— Symbol of Independence

“Independence means an independent decision and opinion of self-determination, self-governing, and self-sufficient without any direct or indirect foreign pressure. It was disappointing to read on the Internet that Abkhazian parliamentarians had celebrated not too long ago, what they described as the anniversary of 165 years of so-called Russian-Abkhazian friendship! The Abkhazian parliament also had requested Russia few years ago to recognize the genocide that had been inflicted on Abkhazians without even mentioning their brothers or friends the Adigha Circassians, who had lost half of the nation by being subjugated to deliberate genocide and ethnic cleansing.”

— Abkhazia between Voluntary Accession, Repression, and Displacement

• From 1555 to 1806, Abkhazia was under ottoman rule.
• While most accounts describe the rapprochement with Russia as voluntary.
• This was especially so after 1810, when Abkhazia joined Russia.
• Russia revoked Abkhaz autonomy in 1864, and the Abkhaz rebelled. This provoked repression so harsh that tens of thousands fled to the ottoman Empire.
• The Abkhazian parliamentarians had celebrated not too long ago, what they described as the anniversary of 165 years of so- called Russian-Abkhazian friendship!

— Circassia is for Circassians

What is so sad and distressing is the attempts of indignant intruders on the Circassian nation and its own Khabzeh that some parties adopt suspicious policies aimed at violating its particularity, influencing its decisions, and even attempting to distort its history and national identity in order to change what the Circassian national identification means.

— Facts Useful to Remember

— The Circassian Question Is Not Incidental

Circassian affairs have never been, at any time and since the beginning of the Russian tsarist invasion in 1763 through the year 1864, which witnessed the culmination of genocide, ethnic cleansing, and forced deportation, an incidental or haphazard matter but a fundamental issue that has affected and continues to affect millions of Circassians in large areas stretching from the Circassian homeland in the northwest Caucasus to the diaspora and alienation in dozens of countries of the world of today.

— Reckless Projects Continue in Circassia

It’s obvious that the colonial policies against Circassia and Circassians, which were initiated by the tsarist Russian Empire, continued during the Soviet era until reaching the current Russian Federation. Recently, the Russian authorities did not skimp on Circassians, nor did the successive regimes since the invasion and occupation. Rather, all of them have done what is not acceptable to common sense. What the colonial talent is doing is aimed at continuing to gnaw at the Circassian properties in order to further expand, annex, and change the administrative divisions.

— A Tbilisi Presentation of  “the Circassian Miracle” Book

— Our Adyghe Nation (Video by Sergey Efremov)

— Studies and Research

With the rising of the sun every day, positive Circassian cultural and historical development occurs. Human growth and development include expanding the options of scholars and researchers to develop their abilities to provide what is possible to preserve the Circassian cultural and heritage in all disciplines, especially what is related to the Russian-Circassian War and its repercussions and the need for comprehensive documentation.

— Circassian Rights are Counterbalanced by the falsehood of Denial

— Holding a Conference in Warsaw (November 2022)

— Increasing Restrictions on Freedom

Behind the scenes, there is a hidden intention of hegemony that is invisible: To reach everything that imperial dominance can. that’s to implement prepared plans against the right of peoples to gain and maintain their freedom, independence, and thus their right to self-determination, knowing that the Russian president openly declared interest in grabbing peoples and nations, to be subjected to the Russian colonial control, as was the case before the collapse of the Soviet Union.

— The Kherson Russian Withdrawal

In light of the negative impact on the reputation of the Russian army in the declared war on Ukraine as a result of the battles in which the Ukrainian forces won a significant part of the battlefield, the Russian forces were forced to retreat or withdraw to safer places to be protected from the fire of the defenders of their homeland. Many media outlets commented on the war’s results and criticized the lousy level reached by the Russian forces.

— Alexander Dugin’s Thoughts

An interesting article with the title “Just Call It Fascism: Alexander Dugin’s fraudulent ‘fourth way,’”811 elaborates on the Russian ultranationalist Alexander Dugin. His daughter Darya was apparently targeted and killed in August 2022 “after an explosive device detonated, destroying the Toyota Land Cruiser she was traveling in.”812 He is described as Vladimir Putin’s brain.

— Eastern Mediterranean Earthquakes

Large areas in turkey and Syria were severely affected by the repercussions of major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks that hit the region. It resulted in severe damage to buildings, infrastructure, and services, including roads, communications, and health of all kinds. As a result, tens of thousands died, many went missing, and tens of thousands were wounded and injured. It seems that the situation needs huge capabilities to absorb the scale of the disaster and start rebuilding again.

— Circassians Who were Affected by Earthquakes in Turkey and Syria

The Circassian community in New Jersey’s prompt reaction will be mentioned as an example. The Circassian Benevolent Association (CBA) executive board invited the members to a crisis meeting right after the main earthquakes hit turkey and Syria to discuss an emergency aid response for those affected by this disaster, bearing in mind helping the Adygha families residing in the villages of the area.

— The Unforgotten Ukrainian Lesson (Feb 24,2022)

— The Independence Day of Kabarda (284 years ago)

• On September 18, 1739, Kabarda was recognized as an independent state. That was an official status of a subject of international law. Article 6 of the Belgrade Peace Treaty between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire reads:
• “There is an agreement on both Kabards – that is, Greater and Minor – and the Kabardian people on both sides to be free for those Kabards and not to be under the possession of one or the other empire; but they only have to serve behind the barrier between both empires…..”
• 2 days later, on September 20, this text was read out at Bolshoi Khase in Kabarda, on the banks of Baksan.

— Bitter Reality Refutes Fabricated Lies

Part of moral responsibility is to stand in solidarity with people in any community or society with no racial considerations, but from a purely humanitarian standpoint. Nevertheless, whatever occurs should not divert attention from the main core in regard to addressing matters and affairs related to the Circassian Question.

— The Russian Ambassador’s Statement

It is not surprising to hear the parrots language once again comes in the form of black propaganda. “Russia’s Ambassador to Turkey has caused outrage among Circassian groups after suggesting that the late-nineteenth-century conquest of historic Circassia and subsequent genocide was a “beautiful legend.”

— Circassian National Identity and Technology

I gave a short summary of the Circassians’ efforts to preserve national identity and how technology, especially the Internet, helped with this.

— Aid Bestowal in the Absence of Obligations Toward Citizens

• During COVID-19 pandemic, remote areas of the Russian Federation such as the North Caucasus, didn’t have the capability of meeting quality standard, whether the official arrangements and preparations for health protection are available, which was not clear whether the government branches and local medical authorities have provided preparations to fight virus, which needed to be conducted only in specialized labs that are certified to do so.
• While Russian PR campaigns on the international stage, showed sending aircraft loads of medical staff and equipment to certain world wide locations, including detection and treatment devices and appropriate medication for the coronavirus.

— Unsurprising Contradiction

Media outlets, especially the pro-Russian Websites have considered this opportunity an appropriate favorite circumstance to step in. This behavior was not in anyway, but a characteristic feature of the successive regimes in Russia. “Another video story which has been shared in pro-Kremlin media shows the Russian anthem being played in Italy. Among the Russian outlets which relayed the video were the state-controlled network (Rossiya 1) and the pro-Kremlin TV channel REN TV, whose story was presented online under the headline, (The Russian anthem has been sounding in the streets of Italy).”

— Charity Begins at Home

According to Kaliningrad journalist Mikhail Feldman, “all methods of combating the coronavirus in the Russian Federation are pursuing a single goal—saving the image of the state at any price.” A light is shed on the health situation in the Russian regions. “The first line in the Kremlin’s defense is simply lying, he says. Many domestic experts say that the number of cases in the Russian Federation is vastly higher than Moscow admits. The second is not testing. Without tests, it is possible to ascribe to the flu or pneumonia what is in fact the spread of the pandemic.”8

— The Kuban Basin

• An event took place at the European Parliament on January 31, 2023, in the title “Imperial Russia: Conquest, Genocide, and Colonization.”
• A speaker described as Kuban representative participated, and took him 18 minutes to deliver his speech, while the time available for him and for all speakers only five minutes each. It contained contradictions, and even came in conflict with the truth, legitimacy, and the real situation of the Circassian homeland when the Russian occupation occurred in the nineteenth century.

— Lack of Legitimacy of the Claims (Highly recommend to read)

New ‘military’ provinces, were established in 1860–1861, included not only Cossack territories but highlander territories that had been under the military governance of the former Caucasus Defensive Line. Kuban Province incorporated part of Circassian territories south of the Kuban (the Right Flank of the former Caucasus Line, which after 1856 had been called its Right Wing.

— Invented Rumors

• Those tend to divert attention from core issues that include dealing with propaganda, gossip attempts, accusations and misleading. They cling to trivial matters that are good for nothing, which in turn cannot change the tangible facts.
• This interaction prompted to present the facts online in two parts so that the general public can have access to them too.
• The first one is under the title “Haphazard Accusations: Circassians Do Not Beg for a Certificate of Good Conduct from Russia.”
• The second part will have the title “think tanks in Democratic Countries.” (bogeyman)

— The Core of Oppression

In dealing with the press and human rights activists, the news received through the media and social media reflects what is actually happening in regard to the clumsy behavior of the active authorities against the Circassian citizens in their fragmented homeland and their confrontation of tendentious and unfair rulings. What is happening in the Circassian part of the North Caucasus highlights the suffering of Circassian citizens under the racist, discriminatory, and unjust laws of local and central authorities.

— The Legitimate Circassian Demands:

•  Free Circassia now.
• Recognize the Circassian genocide.
• The right of return of the Circassians to Circassia.

— The Immortal Circassia

Thanks to Russia’s colonial policy, death and destruction were brought to Circassia for hundreds of years without the slightest legal and moral obligation. The Circassians and other non-Russian nations have the appropriate opportunity to inform the world and all those who are interested in the truth of the crimes committed against them. Even if it takes a long time to wait for the restoration of legitimate Circassian rights, the Circassians will eventually be able to rise from the ashes again, like the phoenix, to claim their legitimate rights.

— Circassia is not for Adventurers and Gamblers

In the midst of what is happening in the Circassian arena, and thus in the Caucasus and regional arenas, Circassia will always remain and inevitably exist in the memory and conscience of the members of the Circassian nation, whether in their homeland or in diaspora. This is according to the skill of avoiding falling. Apparently, Russia’s moves and policies affect everyone with more propaganda and disinformation.

— A Monster Created by the Regime was on the Verge of Overthrowing it

• On the twenty-third of June 2023, the avalanche was reached regarding the relationship between the Russian Ministry of Defense and the Russian regime behind it on the one hand, Yevgeny Prigozhin and the Wagner Group and some influential people in the ruling authorities in Moscow on the other hand.
• This was preceded by direct threats made by the head of the Wagner Group, which began since the start of the so-called special operation in Ukraine that started on the twenty-fourth of February 2022. It accumulated rapidly, leading to the accusation of the Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu and Russian Chief of Staff Valery Gerasimov of corruption, incompetence, and failure to train Russian recruits before sending them to the war fronts in Ukraine.

— Ukraine’s Opinion

• The Ukrainian president described the situation in Russia as chaotic, and said: “Russia’s masters do not control anything. Nothing at all. Just complete chaos,” as not only the Russians were affected, but also Ukraine, due to the Russian invasion of their geographically and ethnically closest neighbor. Noting that Russia is one of the three countries that had signed the Budapest treaty and, accordingly, undertook to provide confirmation of security guarantees, protection and preservation of Ukraine’s territorial integrity in exchange for its voluntary abandonment of its nuclear arsenal, as it was signed in December 1994.885
• Thus, “the Ukrainian forces have been trying to penetrate the Russian defenses in the occupied Ukrainian regions.”
• Ukrainian military sources said: “We have regained control of positions occupied since 2014 in the Krasnohorivka region.”

— The Breaking News that was Received Took Everyone by Surprise:

Wagner’s chief crossed the Russian-Ukrainian border with his forces to control Rostov, Veronikh and other towns, important military centers and bases in these areas, and advanced towards Moscow, and he made fiery statements and threats that do not accept interpretation against senior officials in the Ministry of Defense and the General Staff, and later, he criticized the Russian President Himself. “Prigozhin claimed that what he did was aimed at implementing justice, and he did not intend to carry out a military coup, adding that most of the members of the Russian army support his Wagner organization.”

— Unexpected End

• When it seemed that it was not possible to crush the rebellion, which the Wagner organization described as the “March of Justice”, Prigozhin announced in an audio message that his fighters would be returned to their bases for a “bloodshed avoidance”, after the President of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko, mediated between him and the Kremlin. the crisis was resolved by granting security guarantees to the head and fighters of Wagner, and dropping criminal charges against them.
• Prigozhin, who was sometimes referred to as “Putin’s Chef” owned catering and sausage restaurants and service firms, which were attached to the Kremlin. However, he had to face his inevitable fate on August 23, 2023 when he was involved in a Brazilian Embraer Legacy 600 jet airplane crash, while it was on a flight from Moscow’s Sheremetyevo airport to St. Petersburg airport.

* This Summary Introduction is revised in March 2024

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